Prosopis: A leguminous characteristic from United States until the Pampas Argentina

Original in Spanish

In this edition we publish an original work of flora in the north of Peru where we can appreciate the importance of Prosopis from United States until the Argentinian Pampas. The famous Mesquite of the dry areas in Mexico is of the same genus and similar to the Alpataco of Lavalle in Mendoza - Argentina. The same as the Algarrobo of Piura in the Peruvian north has a similar behavior to the Algarrobo and Calden of Chaco and the Argentinian Pampas.

Published on March of 2006


Main titles of the 71steditionof ESPACIO APICOLA,
January-March - 2006.



XIV Fair and Beekeeping Meetings from the Center of the Country - Fernando Esteban

Fernando EstebanCordoba: (March - 2006) This year the Api-Expo will be developed in the Complex of the Voluntary Firemen Association of San Francisco, near the downtown and with enough space to park.
Progamme: The foreseen Programme is very wide, of a hierarchy and precision worthy of the effort that each one of us make to produce more and better quality of honey. The recent notifications that made the European laboratories, about the new techniques they will enable to determine the genuineness of our honeys based on the polen composition, don't find us unawares. We emphasize the opportunity that associations, groups, cooperatives or individual beekeepers have to expose allusive posters to the characteristics of the region where they work and the type of honey that they produce. It is to generate antecedents that attest that genuineness. Starting from next April 10th, you can consult the schedule of dissertations in our web site Ricardo Prieto, Hector Suriak, Herman Zorzin will develop different topics of the apiaries and pastures management; Edgardo Sarlo, Ricardo Prieto and the Cuban Doctor Mayda Verde will lecture from Sanitary aspects to the organization of regional sanitary plans; Griselda Jullier and Oscar Sibilin, in different presentations, with producers that work under its advice, will develop the possibilities of certifying organic productions in mounts, prairies and islands, as well as the challenges they face. In the Beekeeping Regions Meeting, from Chubut to Formosa and Jujuy, different professionalls will present their Api - Flora: Alicia Basilio, Marta Caccavari, Cristina Salgado, Alicia Forcone, Guillermina Fagundez,Carina Sanchez, Mirta Mabel Cabrera and we wait for other confirmations. The topics of the Bee Biology will be in charge of Walter Farina and Andres Arenas. The season was very irregular: while some exceed widely the annual mead, others couldn't save the expenses. We invite all of you to enjoy this Espacio and to take knoledgement from each article to keep the competitiveness of the Argentine Beekeeping; we wait for you in San Francisco.-
Fernando L. Esteban - Director
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Optimization of the Beekeeping Products, Honey and Grains of Pollen, through the palinological characterization in Ñomala, Chulucanas, Piura, Peru
Rosa Valdivia
(National University Federico Villarreal, Lima, Peru).
Monica Wingenroth and Quaternary Palynology, IANIGLA, CRICYT, Mendoza, Argentina)

Norte de Peru en el limite con Ecuador

The present work has been carried out in the apiary located in Ñomala, District of Chulucanas, Morropón, Piura, Peru, during the Beekeeping Season from September 2003 to January 2004.
The vegetable species and their flowers distributed in the analized area were indexed. In intervals of 10 days and during the whole beekeeping season, samples of green honey or non sealed and grains of pollen formed by Apis mellifera L., were obtained, as well as samples of honey, matured at the moment of the crop. The collected plants were identified. The vegetal origin of the beekeeping products, Honey and Grains of Pollen, in Ñomala, Chulucanas was determined, previous chemical processing and identification of the pollen.
At the time of the analysis of the grains of pollen processed and identified, it was observed that the grains formed by the pollen of Prosopis pallida and Cordia lutea presented maximum concentration at the end of November, being also determined maximum concentration in the final product for the previously mentioned grains and those formed by the pollen of Acacia macracantha.
In the time of the analysis of the processed green honey, the pollen species and their concentrations were identified. The results allowed to suggest the beekeeper the possible production of three honeys of origin unifloral of Muntigia calabure, Prosopis pallida and Capparis scabrida whose pollen was observed with maximum concentration in November, December and January, respectively.
During November and December, in the sequences analyzed, it was determined pollen coming from Prosopis pallida in the green honey and grains; the concentrations of the pollen and of the grains formed by the pollen of the mentioned species were high. Being verified this information, it would be feasible to condition the apiaries to increase the use of nectar and pollen available in the area to the maximum.
It was obtained two honeys monoflorales, indicating the presence of the nectar of Prosopis pallida and Capparis scabrida. According to the number of pollen the honeys belong to the group I and II respectively, characterized by Maurizio and col..; 1978.
It could also be appreciated that Apis mellifera L. visits mainly autochthonous vegetable species to suck nectar and collect pollen.
The complete work, published with its respective charts, graphics and illustrations is presented according to the following order:
Materials and Methods
Results, Analysis and Discussion

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MARKET: Certifiable systems of production
Griselda Jullier
Santa Fe - Argentina

Mrs. Griselda Jullier, Biochemistry and University Technique in Administration and Beekeeping Production and the Engineer Agr. Raúl Sibilín are at professionals in control and certification of Quality in the county of Santa Fe that work in different companies.
Both, next to beekeepers that they advise, have been invited to lecture in the next “Fair and Beekeeping Meeting from the center of the country” to be developed in San Francisco city from May 5th to 7th 2006.
Certifiable differentiated honeys
The international food trade has characterized in the last years by an increment in the demands of quality. This tendency, each day more essential, is being transfered also to the internal market, so being a basic requirement to produce a quality product to be accepted by buyers and consumers. In the case of the honey, it's also a natural product, with a low intervention of the man's hand in the processment, being compared with jam and other sweets, being recognized as a "premiun" product, what drives to more demands by consumers.
The article refers to the following items that are the services that different professionals do in Argentina today.
System of quality administration.
Types of Honey Certification:
Certified Honey by botanical origin (monofloral honeys)
Certified Honey by geographical origin - origin denomination
Organic certified honey.

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GRAN CHACO: Flowering and Honeys from the Mount
Alicia Basilio
Beatriz Achaval y Raúl de León
Facultad de Agronomía UBA - Argentina

Colmena en el monte - Foto de Alicia Basilio
To know more about the knowledge of the honeys originated by the native flora, with unique and particular characteristic, and to guide ourselves about the resources are availables for the apiaries, we analyzed samples of honey from a wide area with natural mount vegetation and we registered the most abundant flowerings.
The honey that we studied was provided by small producers from several towns of Formosa (23 samples), Chaco (15 samples) and Salta (8 samples) in different seasons. All these honeys were originated in the ecological region known as Gran Chaco, with mount vegetation or from humid areas near to the mount.
The published work, with its respective charts, graphics and illustrations, continuous developing the following items:
Content of pollen in the honeys from the mount
Flowering times and honey of different crops.
Honey Quality

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ENTOMOLOGY - PHYSIOLOGY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF THE BEES: A World of smells inside the beehives: Its importance when Gathering Food - Andrés Arenas, Vanesa M. Fernández and Walter Farina Group of Study of Social Insects. Faculty of Exacts and Naturals Sciences
UBA - Argentina

The melliferous bees have an enormous importance like pollinator agent. This can easily be seen when comparing its pollination action with the other animals', among we can include many groups of insects and even some mammals that also pollinate floral resources.
More than 60% of the vegetable species that require to be pollinated inside mild biotopes and neotropicales are fecundated thank to the action of the Apis mellifera bee. So that the importance of the Apis can not be reduced to the obtention of beekeeping products like honey, pollen, propolis, wax, etc. If we consider that many of our agricultural products require to be pollinated by "external" agents, the importance of the melliferous bee is obvious.
Cultivations like alfalfa, sunflower, fruit-trees, among others must be pollinated by insects. To obtain the yield wanted by the farmer, the pollination efficiency of the bees that will visit his flowers is critical, what implies that any action that tends to improve the handling of beehives assigned to pollinate cultivations could bring concrete benefits not only for the agricultural producer, even also for the beekeeper that located his beehives near the plantations to pollinate. In this juncture, in the Laboratory of the Group of Studies of Social Insects, it's studied the role that the smell experiences that are acquired inside the beehives have, at the time of taking decisions about the search and gathering of food sources. It is known that the bees learn the characteristics of a flower (smell, shape, color, etc.) quick and efficiently according to the recompense (quality and quantity of nectar or pollen offered) that they offer. To memorize these keys facilitates the localization and recognition of the food sources during the gathering flights. During the search of flowers, the bees also use information that they obtain inside the beehive, as for example through the dance of the bees and during the numerous interactions mouth to mouth (trofalaxia) that they carry out with worker bees that return of sources rich in nectar.
The summary and the presentation during the "Fair and Beekeeping Meetings from the center of the country" were very illustrative to the producers, even when it's a basic investigation.

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First edition March 5th of 1997

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