ESPACIO APICOLA - CORDOBA - ARGENTINA

Argentine Beekeepers' Magazine

NEWS

September 28th., 2020

Version en Español

LONDON INTERNATIONAL HONEY AWARDS
MAY 17-18, 2021

(Espacio Apícola, September 28th, 2020) "Fernando, I appreciate your help with the apicultura.ar Please make an announcement through it". George Kouvelis(General Manager of the London International Honey Awards - LIHA).
"LIHA is an alternative where people do not buy goods or services, but relationships and stories."
London International honey Awards is an international honey contest organized by George Kouvelis, who is also the organizer of a similar contest in olive oil.
The honey contest is divided into QUALITY of honey and PACKAGING of honey.
Also Emre Yildirim, a friend of Apimaye, is part of this organization. We met Emre in Apimondia Congresses throgh the Turkish company Apimaye and its innovative thermal hives, which we saw operating in the field in Beykoz, near Istanbul, in 2017.
In times of "social distancing" by COVID-19, this contest, promoted in London, center of consumption and concentration of the gourmet honey market, can be an alternative with an international presence to promote honeys from Latin America and worldwide.
Take a look on the honey awarded last year, the award-winning labels ... in which our designers are inspiring, the packaging and presentations ... And be encouraged to participate to show your product and effort. 25% off up to September 30th registration


AWAITING FOR NEW SANCTION AGAINST NEOTICOTINOIDS BY THE EUROPEAN COURT

BeeLife(BeeLife, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium - September 24th, 2020) The neonicotinoids imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxan, some of them used in Argentina since the mid-1990s (imidacloprid in sunflower) received a partial ban in the European Union in 2013. In response to the claims of Syngenta and Bayer, The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) declared those claims inadmissible in 2018 and Bayer appealed again.
Today the General Advocate of the CJEU, the German Juliane Kokott, states that: "!the arguments presented for the appeal are unsubstantial and that the Court should not overturn the Commission’s ban (of 2013)". and adds "the previous ruling contained legal errors regarding the distinguished prohibition measures between professional and non-professional uses of these neonicotinoid substances. Nevertheless, it does not justify overturning the ban imposed by the European Commission." For its part, the European BeeLife Beekeeping Coordination, chaired by Francesco Pannella with a long history in beekeepers' organizations (AAPI, UNAAPI, both are members of BeeLife), Buglife, Greenpeace and PAN Europe, among others, considered that the final decision in this case will mark an important precedent in future procedures related to risk assessment and its impact on environmental protection.
Although the opinion of the Advocate General is not binding, the European Court of Justice must take it into account.
Source: BeeLife


ARGENTINA DEBATE OVER AERIAL SPRAY OF AGROTOXIC PRODUCTS
#BeesAsThreshold

escuela y agrotoxicos(Espacio Apícola, September 23rd, 2020) National deputy Leonardo Grosso proposed a bill of "Minimum Specifications of Environmental Protection for Agrochemical Fumigations" by which aerial spray are prohibited and also, land fumigations are prohibited in a radius of 1500 meters around urban centers, schools, waterways, bee sheds, etc.
In return, Alicia Fregonese, Federico Zamarbide and Marcela Passo presented their projects promoting the monitoring and traceability of fumigations, phytosanitary containers, even proposing "black boxes" to record date, time, weather conditions, geolocation and other information of each use of "phytosanitary products".
The Grosso project does not appear to have the support of the landowner sector. Most landowners (including legislators, politicians, judges and public officials, even heirs to small parcels, of any political sign) are not interested in passing any law that limits the rental capacity of their properties, although the technology applied were dangerous for the environment.
Source: infoagro.com.ar
Report for apicultura.ar by Fernando Esteban.

POLLINATOR ALERT:
BOSCALID AND CAPTAN

EFSA(Espacio Apícola, September 14th 2020) EFSA bulletin published last Friday the "Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance captan (Bayer)". It confirm that the risk is high for birds, mammals, aquatic organisms, bees, and non-target arthropods other than bees for several of the representative uses. Its use should be limited to the production of strawberries in totally closed greenhouses until harvest, however it is authorized on field production of fruit trees such as almond trees, stone fruits, strawberries, pome fruits and all kinds of vegetables (chickpeas, beans, tomatoes , lettuce, aubergines, etc.). According to the Tier 1 risk assessment, a high chronic risk was identified for adult honey bees and larvae for all representative field uses. The report states that captan is not an endocrine disruptor but while Bayer's safety data sheet states that it is not carcinogenic, the technical sheet of captan released by infoAgro.com says that it is a carcinogenic cat. 3 and it is considered carcinogenic in the state of California.
Full text of the review.
In the other, BASF requested EFSA to modify the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of boscalid in pomegranates, from the initial quantification limit of 10 ppb (0.01 mg/kg) to 2 ppm (2.0 mg/kg). Until now, boscalid is officially considered non-toxic to bees, Its concentration found in bee bread and nectar was below the levels considered critical. However, a paper published by Laurianne Paris in ELSEVIER's journal of Invertebrate Pathology point to the impact of boscalid on the gut microbiota of the bee and its synergy in the virulence of Nosema attacks. For its part Nature published in Scientific Reports a paper by Noa Simon-Delso and Etienne Bruneau, from CARI (Beekeeping Center for Research and Information, of the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium) and others, in which they point out that chronic exposure of bees to boscalid significantly reduces the life of bees and that the traditional 10-day evaluation method is not enough since at high concentrations boscalid kills bees in about 7 days, while in low concentrations it does so at an average 25 days, for a control group whose half-life was 32 days.

ARGENTINE SPRING 2020 WITH "La Niña" PHENOMENON

ANOMALIA DE PRECIPITACIONES - LA NIGNA - ARGENTINA 2020(Córdoba, September 11, 2020) The temperatures of the Pacific Ocean at the Equator are 1 or 2 degrees below the average and this means that there are NOT enough convective movements to drag moisture from the proximity of the Asian coasts to South America, therefore, we have "La Niña" scenario. This was announced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this Thursday.
These circumstances habitually are conditioning the weather in Argentina with a spring rainfall increase in San Luis, La Pampa and the northwestern Patagonia regions. On the other hand, "La Niña" reduce the expectations of rainfall in the north of Argentina, the Litoral regions and the province of Buenos Aires. Córdoba province is split in the middle, with a higher probability of more rainfall in the Río Cuarto area, to the south, and a lower forecast of rainfall in the north-central areas of the province.
The National Weather Service (SMN) in Argentina states "La Niña conditions are already present and are likely to continue into summer. Since late April the surface of the equatorial Pacific is showing persistent cooling."

SEEDS FOR BEES

almond pollination - Seeds for Bees(MODESTO, Calif. August 3rd 2020) — The Almond Board of California (ABC) and Pollinator Partnership are proud to announce the alignment of ABC's California Almond Sustainability Program (CASP)1 and Pollinator Partnership's Bee Friendly Farming (BFF) program to promote the importance of providing pollinators with nutritional forage. To further support almond growers in planting pollinator habitat, the Almond Board is simultaneously launching its Bee+ Scholarship, through which it will provide free cover crop seed to 100 almond growers through Project Apis m.'s Seeds for Bees program. The scholarship will also cover the cost for growers to register for the BFF program.
full article

HONEY MARKET IN ARGENTINA 2020-06-11

(Espacio Apicola, May 11, 2020) The honey market is firm. There are difficulties in accessing some towns to upload honey from the beekeepers' sheds due to the quarantine restrictions imposed in some provinces and municipalities. This is slowing down dispatches.
The price of honey below 50 mm Pfund to the producer is between $ 125 and $ 130 (Argentine pesos per kg), slightly above US $ 1.85 of the last month. Contracts with the United States are over US $ 2,500 per ton.
Confidence in the country's health system, due to a low morbidity and mortality rate from COVID-19, is an indicator of the reliability of SENASA's food security system and Argentine beekeeping production.

START OF THE BEEKEEPING SEASON 20-21 IN ARGENTINA

(Espacio Apicola, May 11, 2020) The 20/21 beekeeping season is already underway in Argentina. Due to the prevailing restrictions because COVID-19 spreading risk, transhumant beekeepers are processing authorizations in the respective provinces and municipalities to be able to move beehives.
The transport of beehives should be ruled by the protocols already established for the load transport, allowing the truck to follow its route, maintaining the proper isolation of the driver, who in turn must travel alone.
Regarding the personnel, some producers are processing accommodation in houses or farms as far as possible from the towns, organizing the supply of food and fuel and without attending the town during the first 14 days of mandatory quarantine but, with authorization to go to the apiaries.

REORGANIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EVENTS

(Espacio Apicola, May 11, 2020) All beekeeping fairs and exhibitions in Argentina have been suspended.
The next beekeeping exhibition in Lavalle, Mendoza province, moved to April 2021.
The Macia exhibition, in Entre Rios province, was re-scheduled for October 9-11.
The traditional "ExpoMiel de Azul" was suspended and does not have a date, like the Beekeeping Congress organized simultaneously by SADA in the same Buenos Aires province town.
Next week the new date of the FILAPI Beekeeping Congress in Temuco, Chile, will be known. Its organizers plan to carry it out in October this year.

Visit the site of the Argentine Beekeeping on the Internet to contact and make the purchase of necessary supplies in shops you trust "

ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING MARKET 2020-05-18

1.- HONEY

(Espacio Apicola, May 18, 2020) Argentine Honey price in bulk, to producer, is paid in Argentine pesos at the equivalent of US $ 1.75 - 1.85 for light color honeys, according to distance from port and payment terms. It is used the Banco Nación rate, $ 67.73 / U $ S today. Demand is sustained and FOB price had a significant improvement from March to now, standing at US $ 2,400 - 2,500 per ton for light color honeys for the United States. Contracts to Europe and darker honeys have also improved. The extraordinary harvests of eucalyptus honey and that produced on islands compensate the losses in other regions of the country. In the past week, producers in the south-west of Buenos Aires concluded with the last harvest of the season, the yellow flower, with good yields.

2.- MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

Beekeeping factories as well as packing bottles factories are working as hard as possible with one work shift. Most of them with delays due to logistical and personnel problems. Some workers cannot attend due to belonging to a risk groups, referred to COVID19, or due to other limitations imposed by the circumstances. Even so, the interest of producers to "materialize" the payment of honey in inputs for production, renewal and possible expansion is evident.

3.- QUEEN BEES AND TRASHUMANCE

Despite being a quarantine exception activity by the National Government, there were and still there are many difficulties in harvesting and conditioning the hives in the fall. The inter-Provincial (inter-States) sanitary controls placed serious obstacles to beekeepers movements even with duly registered hives in these provinces. Certain provinces completely closed their borders and the national beekeepers were not able to return to their homes yet. The maneuver is strongly suspected as some governors require beekeepers to complete a 14-day quarantine in hotels that would be owned by the same governors (they charge beekeepers US $ 600 to stay during those days in hotels near their private homes).
Thanks to the efforts of those interested the export of queen bees was accomplished. Breeders from Mendoza were not allowed to cross the province of San Luis (despite exports were excepted), they had to make a detour through La Pampa and Buenos Aires provinces to finally reach the capital city and the Ezeiza airport. Thanks to the good will of the head of the area at SENASA, who signed the dispatches at his home (due to the administrative shutdown), different shipments could be completed. The difficulty was also for the recipients, since all shipments of queen bees to Europe were concentrated in Germany, where those interested had to go to find their shipments.

4.- FAIRS, CONGRESSES AND EXHIBITIONS

All the beekeeping exhibitions in Argentina have already been suspended, and it is expected that the remaining ones for the first semester will be suspended and most likely for the entire current year.
The National Government closed the airports for passengers to and from abroad until September, so it will not be possible to attend any international event outside the country before that date either.
Telephone sales of materials and supplies have been accelerated, as well as Internet sales. Since freight transport is the only one authorized and in front of volatility of the exchange market, professional beekeepers are making purchases in their trusted stores with agreed shipments. Make use of well-established businesses and formal suppliers, who regularly publish their products, so as not to expose yourself excessively to fraud.

STATE OF VARROA MITE IN ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING JANUARY 2020

(ESPACIO APICOLA, February 1st 2020) Varroa mite has not been a pressing problem in Argentine Beekeeping during the last years. The main cause of varroa mortality has been and it is the lack of care and control by the beekeeper, as there are different substances available in different formulations.
There are beehives losses due to defective acaricide lots occasionally or because the mishandling of some products mainly organics applied too late.
There are no significant attacks of varroa mite in Argentina this season 2019-20. This has led some merchants to suggest applying lower doses of acaricides, generating confusion and discredit.
It is important to remember that every treatment must be respected and carried out completely. The beekeeper can decide which is his threshold of varroa tolerance from 0.25% to 0.50%, the risk depends on the date of control. Below the given threshold, it makes no sense to apply a treatment. But if you decide to do it, it must be effective and complete.
The options of synthesis products cost in Argentina are from US $ 0.70 per beehive and up. Organic products cost from US $ 1.40 and up. Those who prepare their own recipes with synthetic or organic products have costs ranging from US $ 0.30 to US $ 0.50 per beehive.
Review the calendar and treatment proposed in Espacio Apicola 122

ARGENTINA: HONEY'S EXPORT TAXES

(December 14th 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) Export Duties for Argentine Honeys would remain at the same value with which it was operated from July 2019.
Decree 32/19 was signed today by the new President of the Nation (Alberto Fernandez). It was published in the Official Bulletin eliminating the maximum tax of $ 4 (Argentine peso) per dollar exported for Mercosur Common Nomenclature products and the general tariff of Article 1st of Decree 793/18 was lowered from 12% to 9% for some products.
For its part, products present in Annex I of Article 2nd of decree 793/18 was modified. It maintains a maximum tax of $ 3 (Ars) per dollar exported from honey and other products excepted from the general rule. Finally, General Export Taxes remain in 12%. In case of Honey it would not be higher than $3 (Ars) per dolar exported.

HONEY QUALITY

(December 3rd 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) There are rejections and penalties for honeys with a significant levels detected (close to 5%) of sugars syrups provided by beekeepers to beehives.
Maintaining the sugar supplementation until the beginning of the nectar flow "so that the hive does not fall" is an inappropriate practice that now began to be sanctioned.
Check the publications we have made on the Current Good Manufacturing Practices (Espacio Apicola nº 124) NOT to spoil your business.

MISTOL: THE HONEY STAR OF THE CHACO FOREST SEASON

(December 3rd 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) The beekeeping season in the Chaco forest region is clossing with a prevalence of mistol's honeys. Ziziphus mistol honey is very tasty, light amber color, very viscous, low humidity and highly foamy, making it too difficult to extract, decant and package process.
Another typical species of the region, the Algarrobo (Prosopis spp), is very poorly represented this year. Regarding the Atamisqui (Capparis ataqmisquea), it was expected to harvest something in the areas where it rained at the end of November. It is the fourth season of Atamisqui fails.

HONEY PRICE IN ARGENTINA

(December 3rd 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) Price to producer of Light Amber honeys is around 100 Argentine pesos, it is 1,67 U$S/kg at the beginning of December 2019.
Likewise, few operations would be carried out due to the uncertainty regarding the export rights policy that the new Argentine government will impose. So far, that right is 5% on the FOB price and on a dollar price at $ 40 / U$S which implies 2 Argentine pesos for each dollar exported.
If the price of the dollar was updated the export duties would be 3 Argentine pesos for each dollar exported.

VARROA

(December 3rd 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) Most Argentine beekeepers who moved their beehives to Santiago's forest are finishing moving their colonies to the meadow. After the honey harvest, is time to varroa monitoring and eventually perform a varroa control treatment. Buy organic products or follow the instructions for preparing them published in Espacio Apicola 112 and 122.

29 YEARS OF ESPACIO APICOLA

(December 3rd 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) We are celebrating our first 29 years sharing experiences of the Argentine Beekeeping and the World for our readers. From those beginnings in December 1990 spraying the basic learning on beekeeping to our current commitment on the quality and diversity of beehive products and the use of beekeeping to optimize agricultural production and environmental remediation, we have addressed a rich range of themes and stakeholders with which beekeeping interacts nationally and internationally. Thank you for joining us in this passion.

HONEY: A NOMENCLATURE CONFLICT

(November 12th 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) In the face of honey frauds, as everybody knows, now there are ambiguities and communicational phenomena that confuse the social and normative concept of the most popular product of the honey bee.
There are three recent products that are interfering with the concept of honey in Argentina and worldwide:
1.- "Honey for vegans." It is the international naturalization of fraud produced with rice syrups.
2.- "Honey free of bees". A product processed from bacteria recently awarded in an Argentine Israeli university.
3.- "Honey of Yatei". A product of a social insect that is NOT Apis mellifera, which has physicochemical parameters outside the ranges defined for honey in CODEX and with a profile more linked to a medicine than a food. In this case, to call this product as "honey" is likely to degrade it and renounce the richness of real and biological diversity.

BEEKEEPING SEASON IN ARGENTINA AT A GLANCE

(November 12th 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) Beekeeping season in Argentina has good prospects.
After a cool and dry October, that greatly reduced the production of honey in the western Chaco forest region, in November masses of moist and warmer air prevailing propitiating better flora development.
Honey crops in Chaco, North of Santa Fe, East of Santiago del Estero come with very good averages.
Water excesses along the Litoral region (East-North-East of Argentina) are complicating the beekeeping operations but are encouraging.
Finally the price of honey to the producer is sustained. The equivalent of US $ 1.60 per kg plus taxes is offered, with some upward trend.

ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING SEASON 2019-2020

(August 19th 2019, Cordoba, Argentina) Cold fronts and high pressure systems in the center of the country are delaying the start of the beekeeping season that seemed to be anticipated in July.
Deforestation does not stop and it increased the cold and high pressure effects; deforestation eliminates evapotranspiration effect from the environment as a climate regulation factor at surface level, further slowing down the hive start.
On the other hand, "El Niño" is passed to neutral and its tendency to "Niña" seems to take away the rainfal in the central region of the country. In the absence of humidity, prevalence of sudden changes of extreme temperatures are possible.

GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS: ALSO FOR HONEY MARKET?

(Austria, June 25th 2019)Important sectors of civil society in the European Union want to suspend the agreement with MercoSur because Brazilian productions comes from deforestation and monoculture. Since the creation of the EU this is just one of many decisions tending to reduce the food and inputs importation from Mercosur. Read in reliable external site.
In counterpart, China finds in the provision of cheap food produced in South America, an excellent opportunity to consolidate the market for its industrialized products. Read in reliable external site

Interactions between honeybees and varroa mites influenced by cell sizes and hygienic behaviour

(Austria, June 19th 2019) Former president of the European Professional Beekeepers Association, Mr. Harald Singer, published his experiences with honeycombs of 4.9 mm cells and their interaction with bees selected for their hygienic behavior. "Differences in cell sizes used in beekeeping are often proposed to be one of the factors regulating Varroa population growth. An in depth research of the relationship between these factors has been undertaken using the 'Carnica Singer population'. The acceptance of foundation with a specific cell size appears to underly selection. Smaller cell size (4.9 mm.) foundation/combs reduces the Varroa-population growth compared to 5.5 mm. This reduction is also dependent on the presence of the VSH- behaviour trait in the worker bee population within the colony. Smaller cell size combs in combination with breeding for the 'right genetics' (cell size and VSH) can be one part of an integrated sustainable treatment concept for Varroa control." Read the full article

POLLINATION:POSTGRADUATE AND OPEN WORKSHOP IN MAR DEL PLATA

(CIAS, June 19, 2019) The Social Bees Research Center of Mar del Plata University (CIAS, Buenos Aires, Argentina) invites you a postgraduate course on June 26, 27 and 28 and free workshops to debate the current beekeeping and native bees of the country.
The workshop will involve apicultural producers (representatives of SADA and local apicultural producers), Governmente and SENASA officials and researchers. More info

POLLINATION: FIRST PATAGONIAN POLLINATION WORKSHOP

(ADENEU, June 19, 2019) Neuquen Beekeeping Program Coordinator, Ms. Nancy Garcia, and the Economic Development Agency of Neuquen invite you the "First Patagonian Pollination Workshops" to be held on July 11 and 12 in the Edgardo Phielipp Auditorium of ADENEU; 802 Sarmiento Street, Neuquen city (Neuquen, Argentina) with researchers and the sponsorship of companies linked to pollination services. Program

BEES AND PESTICIDES: STAKEHOLDERS TO PARTICIPATE IN GUIDANCE REVIEW

(EFSA, May 8th 2019) EFSA is setting up a stakeholder consultative group to support its upcoming review of the guidance on risk assessment of pesticides and bees. The group will be consulted at various stages during the review and provide input to the EFSA scientific working group charged with revising the document.
In March 2019, the European Commission (EC) mandated EFSA to revise its 2013 guidance document on the risk assessment of plant protection products and bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees) (EFSA, 2013), which was republished in 2014 following feedback from MSs collected during a workshop organised by the EC.
So far, there has been insufficient support by Member States represented in the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed to implement the guidance for regular renewal and approval assessments. Many Member States, before considering its full implementation, have expressed their preference for a revision of several aspects of the guidance document. In addition, new evidence has become available since the original guidance was published. As a follow-up, in March 2019, the EC mandated EFSA to review its 2013 guidance document.
Deadline for submission of nominations: 21 May 2019
More info

HOW PESTICIDES USED IN LIVESTOCK THREATEN BEES

(Córdoba, April 11th, 2019) "For several years, episodes of bee mortality have appeared near animal breeding in different regions of France." The National Union of Beekeepers of France (UNAF), a member of BeeLife (European Beekeeping Coordination), commissioned an inventory report of the insecticides used in the breeding of cattle and sheep. "The objective was to understand the mechanisms of action in bees, to question the rules for their placement in the market and to measure the risks they represent for the beekeeping activity."
The overcrowding animal production system increases significantly the concentration of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, antibiotics) in feed lots, high production dairy farms and also poultry farms that the UNAF itself suggests in its report.
The report should be usefull to place apiaries far enough of such intensive animal production centers or to sugest bee friendly animal treatments. The study was conducted by the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS)
English report
Rapport en français

BEEKEEPING AND AGRICULTURE COEXISTENCE

(Macia, Entre Rios, Arg. March 23, 2019) In Macia's exhibition, finally, an Argentine beekeeper (Mr. Arnoldo Karst) had informal access to the National Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Luis Miguel Etchevehere, and told him "do something because we are disappearing". The fact, registered by different media, put on the table and without bureaucratic or political filters the systematic expulsion of beekeeping from the great plains dedicated exclusively to soybean and corn monocultures. An analysis of the fair and this episode that we titled "From the speech of coexistence to the reality of exclusion" in 4 minutes of the radial program "La Miel en tu Radio" with English subtitles in the following youtube link

BEEKEEPING AND AGRICULTURE COEXISTENCE

(Macia, Entre Rios, Arg. March 23, 2019) In Macia's exhibition, finally, an Argentine beekeeper (Mr. Arnoldo Karst) had informal access to the National Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Luis Miguel Etchevehere, and told him "do something because we are disappearing". The fact, registered by different media, put on the table and without bureaucratic or political filters the systematic expulsion of beekeeping from the great plains dedicated exclusively to soybean and corn monocultures. An analysis of the fair and this episode that we titled "From the speech of coexistence to the reality of exclusion" in 4 minutes of the radial program "La Miel en tu Radio" with English subtitles in the following youtube link

CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES - CGMP

(Cordoba, Arg. April 5, 2019) The preventive against the allergen risks in honey and the need to take precautionary measures against any type of the product contaminations they are the focus of the recently Updated of the program of Good Manufacturing Practices made by the FDA that should be applied in what we call Good Beekeeping Practices.
This responds to the new audit scheme for honey exporting countries to the United States. We have published in "Espacio Apicola" #124 the Current Good Manufacturing Practices updated and focused on bee production. Access the online magazine in Spanish at ESPACIO APICOLA 124

PERU: QUEEN BEES IMPORTS

(March 26th, 2019) In 2018 Peruvian authority opened the import market for Queen bees from Chile and now they are concluding negotiations to open the market for Argentine queen bees.
Many referent people from Peruvian beekeeping do not accept these agreements; However, the pollination market of blueberries and avocado of the Andian country claim for more gentle bees.
Two are the most delicate topics: First, not to disseminate bee diseases in Peru and, second, to facilitate the entry of genetic diversity to improve or in some cases replace the local Africanized bees.
To achieve these purposes the sanitary protocols of the origin countries must be certified and the quarantine period in the destination country must be reduced (currently it is a closed quarantine of 60 days).
The biologist and Chilean expert on queen bee breeding, Mrs. Pamela Rodriguez, suggests that it would be more convenient to export queens and to grafted them into bee packages.

FEW BEEKEEPERS IN MACIA

(March 25th, 2019) The first api-expo of the year in Argentina was held in Maciá, Entre Ríos. Despite the organizational effort, the call for beekeepers was low. On Saturday at noon, only 200 beekeepers had entered with their beekeeper id. At times, the rate of officials by beekeepers rised to 1/6 or 1/5, counting municipal, provincial and national officials, legislators, decentralized agencies teams, etc.
Once again, sales was focused on annual consumption of supplies such as suits and gloves, followed by smokers and hand tools or wire coil to spend the winter.
There is little honey and the demand seems to be even lower.

VARROA TREATMENT

(March 25th, 2019) In Argentina it is too late and risky to apply cardboard strips with oxalic acid. Those who have not yet done varroa treatment should opt for volatile products such as amitraz or flumethrin. Follow the recommendations of the varroasis treatment calendar published in Espacio Apicola magazine No. 122

SPEEDING UP THE HONEY IMPORTS IN THE USA

(March 19th, 2019) Next May 2019 is the deadline for American honey importers to register for the Volunteer Qualified Importer Program (VQIP). According to the FDA this registration streamlines the import process by making it faster.
It is important for you that your customer is a VQIP to collect your exports faster and avoiding risks. For this you and your honey supply chain must comply the safety plan and CGMP, respectively.
The three steps required under the Food Safety Modification Act (FSMA) applied to beekeeping and honey production are available to all Spanish-speaking beekeepers and companies in ESPACIO APICOLA 124.

THE "BIBLE" OF HONEY BEE NUTRITION
(March 19th, 2019) Zbigniew Lipinski published in English his book "Honey Bee Nutrition and Feeding" In Temperate/Continental Climate Of The Northern Hemisphere. The text, based on the most relevant and contemporary scientific literature on the subject, has 1356 bibliographical references, beside the main experience gathered by the author in more than 40 years working with bees.
Zbigniew Lipinski, from the Polish Academy of Sciences, holds a Doctorate in Sciences and a PhD in Animal Parasitology and the diseases of beneficial insects.
The English version has 430 pages. It was edited by Richard Jones for the Eva Crane Trust. It is available at the northernbeebooks site at about 30 pounds plus shipping or by contacting the author lipinski@sprint.com.pl

ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING SEASON 2018/19
(March 19th, 2019) In spite of the good spring perspectives, the honey production season in Argentina was poor. Many beekeepers took advantage dividing their hives towards the end of February. Some ones are offering stock up to 2000 beehives at less than U$S 50 per beehive.
Despite the low price of honey the market remains very quiet.
The genuinness determination methods of honey seems to be only a cuckoo to scare the producing countries and step on their heads with low prices. Mexico, Hungary and Argentina have high "Honey" stocks. Some honey businesses such as Brazilian "organic honey" seems to have a great financial component rather than product quality. The market analyzers from IHEO, asking beekeepers to demostrate the genuineness of their product they are responding to those financial interests.

GLYPHOSATE RESISTANT ALFALFA

(November 22nd, 2018) The approval of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa seeding from next autumn in Argentina is in force.
Resolution #33 of the Agroindustry Ministery was enacted on June 7 and favors the entrepreneurial group Bioceres, based in one of the country's main milk basins.
Although in the EU there are increasingly restrictions to admit honeys with glyphosate residues and although the FDA itself in the United States declared the presence of glyphosate illegal in honey, it is not understood the seriousness of the current Agroindustry Secretary call to formulate an "Apicultural Strategic Plan, Argentina 2030". Of course, if we do not worry about glyphosate residues in milk or cheese for our children, what can we expect about honey?

ALARMING OPTIMISM

(November 22nd, 2018) A record crop speculation for this season has been spread in official and agricultural scopes when a large part of grains is still to plant in Argentina plains.
One of the main factors of the economic crises that cyclically crosses Argentina is due to superlative speculations regarding the expectation of harvests. In recent years, whether due to floods or extraordinary droughts, Argentina did not reach the expected volumes. This made the promises to the financial sector unfulfilled.
It is worrisome that, at the current delicate moment, the financial sector is again tempted with a harvest expectation in the face of a "El Niño" phenomenon whose effects are far from being mathematically foreseeable.
The beekeeping campaign, which began with very good prospects, would be in a stand-by today due to the extreme climatic conditions that it presents particularly this spring in the central region of Argentina.

ARGENTINE MEAD

(November 22nd, 2018) The article 1084 of the Argentine Food Code (CAA) that describes the different types of mead, its characterizations and minimum quality parameters, as well as the authorized additives and their maximum concentrations, was modified. The update was promoted by ASAL, food safety agency of the Santa Fe province, where commercial initiatives for export have been developed. The norm published in the Official Bulletin enters into force today, November 22, 2018.

PAMPEAN BEEKEEPING FLORA

(November 22nd, 2018) The Chivilcoy University Center organizes a course to teach how to shape a floral curve and how to know the flora of beekeeping interest for new and experienced beekeepers next December 1st. The course will be in charge of the recognized specialist in the subject Laura Gurini, of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA). More information centrouniversitario@chivilcoy.gob.ar

NEW HONEY TRACEABILITY SYSTEM IN ARGENTINA

(November 12th, 2018) As of December 1st, every batch of honey that is harvested to be marketed in or from Argentina must be registered in the Beekeeping Traceability System implemented by Senasa.
The measure is in compliance with resolution E5-2018 and it is part of a systematization that has been going on for several years.
At first, each beekeeper needs a "tax code" to access its registration as a producer from the platform offered by the Federal Administration of Taxes (AFIP).
Likewise, all extraction rooms authorized or temporarily authorized by Senasa are obliged to register online every batch of extracted honey.
This honey, packed in drums with a unique and inviolable label, will be tracked in the system through the 11 digit code of the label.
Thus the label refers in the Senasa system to all the steps followed by that honey, from the apiary where it was specifically harvested, to which commercial operators intervened until its export or final destination.
Take a look on the manual of this unique official global traceability system at Agroindustria
The special recommendations for the use of this traceability system in the Espacio Apícola magazine nº 122 are available.

RAINS EXCESS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF ARGENTINA

(November 12th, 2018) Even though there is a water deficit acording to the average of the decade, in the first 12 days of November the rainfalls have been strong in a large part of the fertile plain of Argentina.
Mr. Daniel Massello, beekeeper of Calchaqui, province of Santa Fe, he sent me today the records of rainfall in the Santa Fe area. They range from 60 mm to more than 300 mm being the mode 170 mm and the overall average higher than this.
To avoid the runoff that we have suffered in previous years under the phenomenon of "el niño", the province of Córdoba, with more than 10 million hectares dedicated to direct sowing with chemical fallow, should implement an aggressive reforestation plan.
The provincial government is already demanding a reforestation area of 2% in the fields of the province. This value is purely symbolic. It is required at least 10% of reforested area to influence the environmental conditions and improve soil conditions, for every 250 Ha minimum. This could generate water absorption areas and lungs of evapotranspiration, plus a diversification in the use of land, as we suggested with the request of a "Law of incentive to agricultural productive diversification" in 2010, Espacio Apícola magazine nº 92

ARGENTINE HONEY MARKET

(August 18th, 2018) Argentina exported about 37,000 tons of honey in the first half of 2018, mostly in bulk.
The price average and depending on the volumes per destination was U$S 2.60 while the average of the main market, the United States with almost 18,000 tons, was U$S 2.49.
The average value of the dollar in the first quarter was $ 20.10 (Argentine pesos per dollar) while in the third quarter the average rise to $ 23 (ARS per USD).
The price paid to producers today for white honeys, below 34 mm Pfund, is approximately $ 50.
The current dollar price is $ 29 (ARS per USD). The rising interest rates makes the cost of money more expensive and the devaluation of the currency is not reflected in the price of the honey to producers.

BAYER CONDEMNED IN CALIFORNIA

(Reuters, August 10th, 2018) The German company Bayer was sentenced to pay U$S 39 million in compensation and another U$S 250 million for punitive damages last Friday August 10th because the death of a groundskeeper. Mr. Johnson died because cancer caused by the glyphosate of Roundup (the herbicide leader of the transgenic production that devastates ecosystems) belonging to Monsanto, the company recently acquired by Bayer AG in 65 billion dollars.
The San Francisco Superior Court ruling is the first of a list of approximately 5,000 pending cases in the United States. Contrary to the suspicion of the World Health Organization, Bayer denied that glyphosate is carcinogenic.
Source: Reuters

HISTORIC: HAWAI'I ENACTS FIRST U.S. BAN ON CHLORPYRIFOS
(June 17th 2018, Pesticide Action Network) Hawai'i made history when Governor David Ige, watched by representatives of the community from across the islands, signed into law Senate Bill 3095, banning all uses of chlorpyrifos, a neurotoxic pesticide that has been shown to harm children and has been found in food, air and drinking water. The high-profile pesticide was slated for a ban, but under Scott Pruitt’s Environmental Protection Agency, the planned ban was reversed.

GLYPHOSATE:What to do with contaminated honeys?

(June 17th 2018, elentrerios.com) Uruguayan beekeeping faces a huge problem. "There are 7,000 tons of honey stocked in the producers' warehouses.
"There is a lot of honey without problem with glyphosate, but there is so much honey in the world market that prices dropped and merchants want to buy honey at lower prices than production costs. We would be losing a lot of money by selling it at that price." Alfredo Aguilera, secretary of the Uruguayan Apicultural Society (SAU).

HONEY MARKET

(June 12th 2018, EA) Apparently operations are very quiet, both nationally and internationally.
From Espacio Apícola magazine we think it is the oportunity to promote the current traceability system that will be launched in the next beekeeping season in Argentina. It is seen as a tool of strengthening trust between supplier and client. It is an easily auditable system to guarantee the genuineness of the honey offered. See the system's instructions and opportunities and colaborate with us by https://joom.ag/NhyY

THE CHALLENGE OF THE NEXT FAIRS IN ARGENTINA

(June 12th 2018, EA) The beekeeping expo of Doblas (La Pampa province), finally announced for August 10 and 11, should announce an attractive program and commercial alternative to increase a call that has not been satisfactory in the last editions. The honey harvests in the region have been irregular.
For its part, the Exhibition of General Lavalle, in Mendoza province, has a good opportunity in terms of the honey harvest that this province has had and the traditional supply of queenbees, nucleus and bee packages is an undisputed strength of this province with the highest proportion of bee breeder farms.

THE AZUL's HONEY EXPO HAS HAD A POSITIVE BALANCE

(June 12th 2018, EA) The Azul beekeepers' Centre returned to be protagonist, successfully, with the fair developed in facilities of the Rural Society last weekend. Two buildings and a big tend housed almost 60 companies related to beekeeping.
The audience gathered mainly on Saturday. The number of attendan was enough but moderate.
The honey buying and selling operations were very limited. CIPSA buys from its usual suppliers. Only Patagonik S.A. was willing to make business. The price offered was around $ 40 (forty Argentine pesos). There were talks between machinery manufacturers and exporters to make business buying machineries with honey.

HONEY TRACEABILITY COMPUTER SYSTEM

(June 6th 2018, EA) In Argentina, the Federal Administration of Public Revenues (AFIP) set up, within its online services platform, the computerized traceability system for SENASA. It is a very simple system to operate and ductile for the company and the Argentine beekeeping sector. It is a very interesting tool to certify the genuineness of our honey, which every extraction room is obliged to access. We have published the instructions based on the explanations of Mr. Adrian Ibarra and we have added suggestions to take advantage of its structure according to the needs of the beekeeping company. All that remains is for SENASA to adapt some aspects of the regulations that are not sufficiently in line with the needs of the beekeeping sector. The system comes into force in the next season and will also be the central theme of the Azul's Honey Expo this weekend.

VARROA TREATMENT CALENDAR

(June 6th 2018, EA) Ricardo and Juan Manuel Prieto sent us their data sheets and analysis about how to use the cardboard strips embedded with a solution of oxalic acid in glycerin against varroa. Based on this information, we elaborated a Varroosis treatment calendar for the Pampean region, easily adaptable to other areas in Argentina. We also add a reading of the Strengths and Opportunities of this treatment as well as its Weaknesses and Threats (SWOT). The Calendar, published in Espacio Apícola 122, will be a dominant theme of the Expomiel Azul 2018 next weekend.

Will they hit on the nail?

(April 1st 2018, EA) We have heard Agr. Norberto Garcia Girou, current IHEO president, talking about genuinity of honey certification with NMR some times. We also visited the Bruker stand in Apimondia Congress Exhibition. We have analyzed thoroughly the conference of eng. Federico Berrón during the Apimondia Congress also, and then, we compared this explanations with the different honey marketing strategies and other products wich emulate honeys at the ANUGA exhibition in Cologne, Germany. There we saw self-sacrificing local beekeepers teaching how to consume "honey" up to stands selling honey emulated products for vegans. We analyze the applying feasibility of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) technology to guarantee the market of genuine honeys in our 121 issue (in Spanish).

ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING SEASON IS FINISHING

(April 1st 2018, EA) Argentine beekeeping season is finishing between 10 to 15% bellow previous season yield. Apiaries next to lagoons or flooded soils last year, have had a high freatic napa that allowed them in some areas to exceed 80 kg of honey per beehive.
However, blooms that depend on rainfall did not gave nectar and the decline was significant.
With a national honey consuption around 10.000 tons per year, we expect an exportable supply around 55000 tons.
The current ridiculous regulation about drums traceability of SENASA will force companies to sell off the stock as soon as possible to reach October with the lowest reserve of old drums to see how to operate with new requirements.

TRACEABILITY OF DRUMS

(March 14th 2018, EA) The new system of drums traceability is already enable in Argentina. It was made by SENASA and Agricultural Ministry of Argentina. This traceability system for a single-use of each drum for honey will be mandatory for the next 2018/19 crop however stakeholders can already operate with it adding the application from their self-management AFIP site (the Tax Administration Agency) with fiscal key.
The impact of the measure was surprising. The Sanitary Authority would have received a flood of inscriptions of honey extration rooms, which in some provinces would have tripled the existence of those under law in the last 10 years. More information: apicultura.com.ar (in Spanish)

PROHIBITION OF AGROCHEMICALS
(March 14th 2018, EA) The Eurpean Food Safety Agency (EFSA) ratified the ban on three neonicotinoids: clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam; as well as the restriction of the use of Fipronil as seed treatment of certain crops.
Fipronil has razed the Uruguayan beekeeping where it was banned. Imidacloprid was a silent enemy for more than 20 years in Argentine beekeeping, particularly in sunflower treatment. Its danger was exposed in several editions of Espacio Apicola magazine, more recently in Walter Farina paper "Effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the behavior of young adult bees" (Espacio Apicola #114 www.apicultura.com.ar/114.html) and in Espacio Apicola magazine #121 "Chronic exposure to neonicotinoids near corn crops reduce the health of bees" by N. Tsvetkov et al.

HONEY MARKET - ERRATA
(March 4th 2018, EA) We apologize to Ing. Federico Berrón for the mistake we made when mentioning him in the cover of Espacio Apicola magazine edition #121 (www.apicultura.com.ar/121-tapa-CORREGIDA.jpg). We mentioned Federico Berrón in the article on honey market. There we reffer in detail to his lecture in Apimondia Congress 2017 and to wich we added notes from the same congress and, in particular, about honeys and pseudo-honeys that were offered a week later at the ANUGA international exhibition (Germany). On the cover we had a slip and we mixed his name with another well-known actor in the apicultural chain. Federico Berrón is an active Mexican beekeeping entrepreneur.

HONEY BEE NUTRITION
(February 24th 2018, EA) Prof. Geraldine Wright made a complete review on honey bee nutrition. She lecture in Apimondia Congress and wrote a deep article which is available on the web. Since Haydak's mixtures up to now it is the most complete answer to larvae, nurses, foragers and queen bees requirements.
Original article: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-ento-020117-043423
We translated and published it into Spanish in Espacio Apicola #121. Ask us for your issue at espacioapicola@gmail.com

ARGENTINE AUTHORITY CONFIRMS DRUMS' RULES FOR EXPORT HONEY

(SENASA June 9th 2017) The Argentine Sanitary Authority (SENASA) confirms validity of Ministry of Agriculture Resolution 121/1998 by a Memorandum who says: By this note we warn that the honey from 2016/2017 crop must be marketed into new or recycle drums strictly complying what Resolution number 121/1998 stablished" The note number 203/1998 is signed by Dr. Dal Bianco.
Strict packing norms under wich we have exported honey during the last 18 years was remembered and ratified.

GMOs TO DEGRADE NEONICS

(Source: Peter Borst, Cornell Univ., USA, June 15th 2017) "A method and system for the treatment of honey bees (Apis mellifera) protects them from various life threatening conditions.
What is claimed is: 1. A method for providing a pollinator with the ability to assimilate neonicotinoid pesticides, comprising, providing to a pollinator a modified bacteria of a species normally found in the gut microbiome of the pollinator, said modified bacteria being adapted to degrade a neonicotinoid pesticide, wherein the modified bacteria have genes involved in the degradation of neonicotinoid pesticide."
We ask ourselves: Is this an advance? Maybe, Couldn't it be better to reduce the use and abuse of neonicotinoids before introducing GMOs into bees?

GLYPHOSATE IS RATIFIED AS CARCINOGEN IN FRESNO

(Los Angeles Times, LA, California, USA March 14th 2017) In January, Superior Court Judge Kristi Culver Kapetan tentatively dismissed a challenge by Monsanto and a citrus growers group. In her final ruling last week, the judge said that none of Monsanto's objections were viable, the Fresno Bee reported.
A judge has ruled that California can require Monsanto to label its popular weed killer Roundup as a possible cancer threat despite insistence from the agrochemical company that it poses no risk to people.
It's sold in more than 160 countries, and farmers in California use it on 250 types of crops.

CRITICAL FLOODS IN ARGENTINA

(Espacio Apicola, April 12th 2017) The Chivilcoy's api-expo was carried out during the last critical weekend in the North of Buenos Aires province and the South of Santa Fe and Cordoba provinces. In Ricardo Prieto's farm rainfalls was over 300 mm between Saturday 8 and Monday 10th. The routes between Buenos Aires and Mendoza were and remain cutted. The National road #188 is cutted in several points. The National Road #7 is cutted next to La Picasa lagoon. On Monday 10th the water crossed above National Road #8 at Arias city, between Venado Tuero (Santa Fe) and Rio Cuarto (Cordoba) cities. It's only a sample of the whole panorama of several Argentine provinces: Tucuman, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, La Pampa, Cordoba, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Buenos Aires up to Comodoro Rivadavia city in Chubut province where the city was destroyed by the runoff from the "El Chenque" mount. It is an emblematic picture of the neglect atitud of us about environmental infrastructure. Take a look on the Level Curves Map of Cordoba Province, "Between Drought and Floods", Espacio Apicola magazine # 118.-

WEATHER: REALITY DESTROY FORECAST

(Espacio Apicola, January 17th, 2017)During the first 15 days of January it has rained more than the average of whole summer in the central region of Argentina. In the area there are one million hectares flooded, loss of crops and loss of livestock.

After several weeks of drought the rains began for Christmas recovering initially the honey production but the excess has caused loss of beehives in Eastern Cordoba, in the south center of Santa Fe and in several points of Entre Rios provinces. Many beekeepers cannot enter the fields to harvest for lack of soil density.

On the other hand, some lots of Algarrobo honeys (prosopis) harvested in November reached an excellent quality with colors below 20 mm Pfund and humidity around 16%. In the meadows of Cordoba and Santa Fe we found , before the floods, clover honeys between 4 and 15 mm Pfund, with humidity below 18%.

HONEY EXPORT REFUNDS

(Espacio Apicola, January 17th, 2017) 2017 started with a decree that grants a refund of 3% to honey exports in Argentina. To this benefit, which is understood as a tax refund, can be added 0.5% by denomination of origin, another 0.5% if it is organic honey and a plus of 0.5% if the product carries the Seal of "Argentine Quality". Some agents have expressed dissatisfaction with this measure whose economic impact is low and the risks are very high.

BAYER, WHO ELSE?...

(EFSA, January 17th, 2017) The German company who bought Monsanto insists on the registration of spirotetramat. The US justice removed the pesticide in 2009 (Espacio Apicola No. 90), due to procedural errors. Spirotetramat is harmful for bees in the larval stage. Now Bayer in Austria (is it its backyard?), has made EFSA to raise the MRL of spirotetramat to 400 ppb in pomegranates and 50 ppb in vegetables.

A VERY ANORMAL BEEKEEPING SEASON IN ARGENTINA

(Espacio Apicola, December 16th 2016) Citrus Honey production was very good in Tucuman as the Algarrobo crop in Southern Santiago del Estero. Both honeys are from spring and they are beautiful (white and dry honeys, below 25 Pfund mm and 16% respectively). But current season is irregular in the main honey production area of Argentina.
Mendoza has had a poor crop.
Santa Fe and Cordoba were waiting for temperature and moisture but at the moment we have a very few hot and too dry days.

Sunflower seeding was higher in Santa Fe and Chaco and it is expected to have a good crop. Some melilotus are flowing very well in northern Santa Fe but the region needs humid and hot days.

Finally the predicted dry weather for summer was anticipated. Thermal amplitude is high in the honey crop area of the Pampas and it is very windy. It is not encouraging the honey crop expectation in the prairies, next to a hot and dry January. Hope to be wrong !

BEEKEEPING AGAINST THE FINANCIAL AND POLITICAL DISORDER IN ARGENTINA

(Espacio Apicola, December 16th 2016) The price of honey is still low, the Government debt taking liquefies many dollars to sustain the fiscal deficit, and interest rates are very high.

A Seed pool are offering a yield of 14% (USD) per year and investments in livestock sector arround 8% in the same currency. So, given the mismanagement of land use and all primary production, the opportunity cost emerges as the only variable that subjugates any production that is not linked to soybean and corn monocultures (dedicated almost exclusively to biofuels, oils and Different feedingstuffs).

A project for any primary productive sector is not seen. In this context, the entire Argentine beekeeping chain faces an international market with a high internal cost and an increasingly restricted availability of resources.

President Macri's choice for a discourse linked to the story of "climate change", according with the interests of the soybean model, hides the evident weakening of the environmental infrastructure caused by the forest clearance.

Beyond a necessary and desirable ordering of state institutions, which is costing fortunes, it seems that nothing more can be expected of the current administration.
As always, it is imperative for beekeeping to propose alliances with other sectors to generate alternatives to the current model of land and water use. Because this model is leading us definitively to an environmental and productive catastrophe in the short term.

ARGENTINE HONEY MARKET

(Espacio Apicola, August 29th 2016) According to the recent SENASA report the current Argentine Honey exports rise up to 42000 tonnes at the end of July. Whole Argentine Beekeeping chain need and expect to export over 60000 tonnes in this year to maintain its structure and to grand a better expectation on the next season which is already underway.
Producers are concerned on the low price of the honey in front of the uncertainty of the new season yields; over all in the marginal areas where they had to move to shelter from the toxic-dependent monoculture. Doblas Api-Expo, with small audience but very well organized by its mentors and residents of the city, it was a clear sensor of this scenario.

RESIN TECHNOLOGY FOR HONEY. THE DISCUSSION

(Espacio Apicola, April 20th 2016) The American Bee Journal sent us an special issue last March 3rd. with a Ron Phipps article about the International Honey Market under this title "Resin technology applied to honey creates products which cannot be labelled as ‘Honey’”. We have put this article into context and translated for Argentine Beekeepers with some annexes to explain what and what for is this technology applied on honey. The technology started a great discussion between importers, exporters and the whole honey industry.

SMALL HIVE BEETLE IPM IS READY IN SPANISH

(Espacio Apicola, Cordoba, Arg - April 20th of 2016) Because of the Brazilian alert last month regarding an SHB event in Sao Paulo State, Espacio Apicola magazine asked the authorization of Dr. William Michael Hood to translate into Spanish and to publish his "Handbook of Small Hive Beetle IPM" published by the Clemson University of South Carolina. This handbook is ready in Espacio Apicola #115 for our Spanish-speaking readers. Thanks Mike and Cooperative Extension of Clemson University!

ARGENTINE FLOODINGS

(Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Cordoba, provinces of Arg. April 20th 2016) Thousands of beehives are lost because flood and runoff in the central area and the Argentinian Mesopotamia. It is raining in this region from March 20th up to now with a few cloudy days. The Parana and Uruguay rivers are receiving a great caudal from their affluents in the high basin but all the lower basin is adding a lot of water. The soil profiles of the region are saturated because deforestation of the whole Argentine fertile plain used only for soybeans and corn plantations.

RESIN OR RESIDUES?

(Espacio Apicola, April 20th 2016) While the FDA in America is working to ban effectively the commercialization of Chinese, Indian, Taiwanese or Vietnamese honeys treated with Resin Technology to remove antibiotic, pesticides or HMF, EFSA in Europe is approving higher MRL of pesticides in honey. After the costly Bablock case, when the beekeeper sued and win against the Bavarian State because trace of GMO into his honeys, now EFSA in accordance with the request of the German Government accept e.g. up to 200 ppb of Thiacloprid (Bayer - EFSA paper) into honeys because its use in colza treatments. What would be more suitable to protect the natural condition of the honey and its safety? What do you prefer, Resin Technology or higher MRL of toxics?

EFSA: NEW ADVANTAGE FOR NEONICOTINOIDS

(Espacio Apicola, Cordoba, Arg - March 3rd. 2016) The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) raised the Maximum Residue Level (MRL) of thiacloprid to 200 ppb in honey.
"The EMS based the MRL proposal on a total of eight trials where honey was collected in hives positioned close to rapeseed plots treated with thiacloprid at the full bloom growth stage. Based on residue levels in honey collected 16 to 29 days after the last application, an MRL of 0.2 mg/kg was derived for thiacloprid in honey".
The news is perhaps a relief for the market but is worrisome for the global beekeeping since it is recently checked the damage that neonicotinoids provoke interfering with neuronal receptors of young adult bees in their learning stage (Carolina Mengoni Goñalons & Watler Farina 2015 - PlosOne original paper in English and 2016 Espacio Apicola in Spanish).
Bayer and the German states do not want to lose more trials with beekeepers, as the judgment in the Bablock case in 2011; Mr. Bablock could not sell his honey because the presence of GMOs. So EFSA without looking at the impact on the beehives, authorizes raise again the MRLs for products highly called into question by its environmental impact.
The country requesting the MRL increase of Thiacloprid in honey is Germany. The laboratory that produces it is Bayer. THIA-CLOPRID: a sadist contraction of thiametoxan and imidacloprid two neonics that have devastated the beekeeping world for two decades. EFSA paper

YUCATAN: HARRASED BY CLIMATE AND BEETLE

(yucatano.com Mexico - March 2nd. 2016) The iconic Mexican peninsula that exported honey mainly to Germany suffers severe weather that have significantly reduced the production of honey. Also this year, met with the dispersion of Aethina tumida, the small hive beetle spoils the honeycombs and honey. El Yucatano

WORLD APIMONDIA SYMPOSIUM ON ORGANIC BEEKEEPING IN THE ARGENTINE PROVINCE WORLD LEADER ON DEFORESTATION

(Espacio Apicola, Cordoba, Arg - March 2nd. 2016) The Fourth World Symposium on Organic Beekeeping will be carried out in Santiago del Estero from 6 to 10 September 2016.
The event is sponsored by the Ministry of Production, Natural Resources, Forestry and Lands of the Province, Apimondia and INTA (National Institut on Agro Technology).
Gonzalo Camba, a lab technician of the Regional and Remote Sensing Analysis (LART) of the Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires (FA-UBA) recently revealed in his thesis work that Santiago del Estero leads the world deforestation ranking with 4 million hectares (40,000 km2 or 10 million acres) of native forest devastated in recent decades. (sobrelatierra.agro.uba.ar)
Its deforestation rate is 39 times higher than in the subtropical forests. It is clear that the "chaquenio" park is the main resource of Organic Beekeeping in the region.
Take a look at the objectives and commissions of the symposium

THE SMALL HIVE BEETLE IS IN BRAZIL

(Espacio Apicola, Cordoba, Arg - February 25th 2016) The World Organisation for Animal Health confirmed the presence of the SHB, Aethina tumida, in Brazil.
The event was recorded on March 1st 2015 but it was reported one year later by Dr. Figueiredo Marques Ghilherme Henrique, Director of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply in Brasilia last February 23rd 2016.
The finding was in an apiary near 22º 47' S and 47º 38' W in vicinity of Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, on a tributary of the Parana River about 800 km to the entrance of it in Argentine territory, as can be interpreted on the map of the World Animal Health Information System.
It is a serious and alarming event for Argentine Beekeeping because the wet cicle prevailing in South America, because the high swarming behavior of Africanized bees, added to the waterways of communication.
From where the infestation comes? It does not seem to be linked with the progress of the beetle in Central America; this event were located in proximity to the Port of Santos, in the same State of San Pablo it seems to be the route of entry of SHB into Brazil.

HONEY MARKET

(Fernando Esteban, Cordoba, Argentina - February 16th 2016) The most pessimistic position in Argentina say two things: At first, the industry in the USA and EU have replaced the honey by another product. In second, we have in Argentina an important remnant of the 2015 honey harvest that will be added to the surplus of a good honey harvest in 2016. Therefore, it will take three years to balance the supply and demand.
The most optimistic voices are coming from abroad, where it is expected: at first, the honey stock of packagers runs in a month. Second, the syrups that are sold like honeys to Europe (and the USA) probably by China and Vietnam will be punished soon.
Fortunately the best yields in many areas of Argentina are lowering production costs, but is necessary to move the wheel not to provoke a bankrupt.

HONEY PRODUCTION FALLS IN YUCATAN

(terra.com; sipse.com - Mexico - February 8th 2016) Miguel Lara Sosa, president of the Maya Bee Assn., said that cooperatives did not collect enough honey from November up to now to meet the demand of foreing markets, mainly Europe.
"This is one of the worst starts of the season in many years -Mr. Lara says-, and for example, in the same period some years ago they reach at least 100 tonnes but now the partners has not collected more than a ton".
More information

PORTUGUESE DOCTORS TO BAN GLYPHOSATE

(Sustainable Pulse, Portugal - February 9th 2016) The president of the Medical Assn. of Portugal is calling for a worldwide ban on glyphosate because it is a precursur of celiac desease, infertility, kidney disease, autism, birth defects and other diseases, in addition to damage ecosystems and because it is a threat for tens of endangered vegetable species.
More information

ARGENTINE HONEY CROP

(Espacio Apícola, February 7th 2016) In a complex scenario at the end of Cristina Fernandez' Government for the farmers, the reduction of herbicides use in poor soils it was good for honey crop in several regions of the fertile plain areas of Argentina. The "fertile plain areas" are a vast deforested region including the famous "Pampas" but nearly triples it in size.
Another positive factor for beekeeping was the prevalence of "El Nino" from the end of winter and spring, in South America, providing abundant rains in several regions. So some areas in the East and South of Cordoba, West and Sothern west of Buenos Aires and La Pampa they recovered honey production volumes and mainly clear honeys, in the last two years. Cordoba, Santa Fe and Entre Rios also maintain higher averages than the past decade with some difficulties.

IMIDACLOPRID LICENCE UNDER REVISION

(Espacio Apícola, February 7th 2016) After twenty years of massive use of IMI the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has put under review the record of this neonicotinoid because their negative impact on beneficial insects.
A new paper of Walter Farina is added to the extensive bibliography published on the subject. The well known scientist of UBA worked on the nerve disturbance that IMI provoque in the learning system of honeybees and their orientation.
The paper published by PlosONE was translated into Spanish by me and published in Espacio Apicola Magazine #114, the Argentine Beekeepers' Magazine. Original article

SMALL HIVE BEETLE (SHB) IS ALREADY IN SOUTHERN MEXICO

(Espacio Apícola, November 21st. 2015) The advance of SHB (Aethina tumida) is confirmed in the southern region of Oaxaca, Mexico and threatens to spread in Central America watching South America.
The plague which comes from the fruit of South Africa is a beetle whoose larvae burrow into the honeycombs, contaminating and destroying them.
Source

ARGENTINE BEEKEEPERS REGISTRATION FORM

(Espacio Apícola, January 7th 2016) A new online protocol replaces the traditional registration form for beekeepers and honey extraction rooms in Argentina, RENAPA.
From now this record is directly linked to the Federal Public Revenue Administration (AFIP).
The new entrepreneurs should be fill the form in the website. Current credentials are valid until its expiration and must be updated online. More information

INTERNATIONAL BEEKEEPERS MEETING IN ECUADOR

(Espacio Apícola, November 21st. 2015) Called by Mr. Franklin Sandoval, head of APISAN company, it will be held the First International Beekeepers Meeting in Quininde, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.
The appointment will be in the Auditorium of Drivers Union of Quininde on November 26 to 28th.
Invited by Franklin, we will be sharing with beekeepers from Ecuador and Colombia that they have already confirmed their attendance. You will find all the details of this meeting in the next Espacio Apicola magazine No. 114. More information

EDITION 113 OF ESPACIO APICOLA MAGAZINE

(Espacio Apícola, November 21st. 2015) We have updated our apicultura.com.ar website with a sketch of the last issue of Espacio Apicola No 113. There you will find the top stories of this issue that it has been distributed to our subscribers by Correo Argentino. The information focuses on the development chance of beekeeping in the islands of the Parana River in Argentina and the current situation of Beekeeping in the Islamic Republic of Iran where Parodi Foundation invited us to make a diagnostic of the activity for the United Nation Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). We also publish a brief analysis of the exporter market situation of the Argentine Honey, among others. More information

COLDEST OCTOBER IN 40 YEARS

(Espacio Apícola, November 1st. 2015) The beekeeping season in Argentine prairies was very advanced in late August and early September. However, the "Niño" did not provide us the expected water but yes a fall of temerature. According records of Mr. Ricardo Prieto and Luis Gomez, queen bee breeders from Buenos Aires and Mendoza respectively, this October was the most cold in 40 years.

BEEKEEPING AND AGROCHEMISTRY

(LA JORNADA, MX. November 1st. 2015) Mr. Rémy Vandame, organic beekeeping adviser among the native peoples of southern Mexico, reaffirmed the already proven in many other countries, even in the European Union: "coexistence between OGM crops and honey production is impossible", as well as any another production not resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. In Cordoba, Argentina, Mr. Nestor Ingaramo found that the beehives exposed to the herbicide decline to death. More info: (LA JORNADA

CONGRESS OF ORGANIC HONEY PRODUCTION

(Espacio Apícola, November 1st. 2015) The government of the province of Santiago del Estero summoned the same Rémy Vandame as a consultant under the organic beekeeping congress to be held in that province in September 2016 with Apimondia sponsorship and local coordination of Coopsol cooperative. The specialist was met with provincial authorities and Mr. René Sayago and Alejandro Henin members of the cooperative in Santiago del Estero city last Friday October 30.

CHINA HONEY

(LA REGION, GALICIA, SP. November 1st. 2015) Europe has many fronts of trade battle with China, mainly to contain the entry of high-tech products at bargain prices. The authorities look to other side about honey, they allow to enter Chinese honeys and later they solve the local producers with a subsidy. Here it is the Spanish beekeepers claim. LA REGION

MONSANTO AND SYNGENTA COME BACK

(ESPACIO APICOLA, November 1st. 2015) Accused of being largely responsible for the loss of productivity and even the mortality of bees, both multinationals have their programs to improve their image.
Monsanto bought "Beeologics" in 2013 a company of a renowned beekeeping researcher to study the effect of neonicotinoids on bees. Meanwhile Syngenta announces a broadcast day at its experimental station in Santa Isabel, Santa Fe, to show its "Operation Pollinator" next Thursday November 5.

NEONICS NATURE.COM

(NATURE, October 16th 2015) The prestigious scientific journal published an article open access where the harmful impact of pesticide neonicotinoids in the reproductive tract of queen bees is highlighted. NATURE

HONEY PRICE IN ARGENTINA

(ESPACIO APICOLA, October 16th 2015) Argentina is having a major remnant of honey in their stocks, the productive season is starting very cold and the prices are in the freeze, below $ 18 (Argentine pesos per kilogram).

APIMONDIA & OXALIC ACID

(Espacio Apícola, July 4th 2015) The APIMONDIA Congress and its commercial ApiExpo will be held in Daejon, Korea, from September 15 to 20th 2015.
The organizing committee extended the deadline for submission of abstracts until July 15th.
We would love to attend this congress to present the cardboard strips soaked in a solution of Oxalic acid into Glycerol development for treating varroa, tested by the Queen bee breeders Ricardo and Juan Manuel Prieto. Unfortunately Daejon is too far and expensive for this Argentine editor. This takes us away from the possibility of presenting this summary by now.
But beekeepers and all who are interested in testing the formulation published in the issue number 109 of Espacio Apícola, its preliminary results published in Espacio Apícola number 111 and the final experience published in Espacio Apícola number 112 is available to all stakeholders. It is a formulation presented as State of the Art, free of patent rights.
Take a look on Apimondia web site www.apimondia2015.com and try to make an effort to be there!.

MELISSOPALYNOLOGY AND SENSORY ANALYSIS COURSES

(Espacio Apícola, June 30th 2015) Ms. Paula Lanzelotti (Eng. on Food), technical director of the Melacrom Laboratory invites the courses that will be taught at the University of Lujan, Buenos Aires, Argentina from August 10 to 14th. It is also lectured by Drs. M. Cristina Telleria and Nancy M. Apostolo and the participation of MS Beatriz Perez. After this course will be offered another about sensory analysis starting in the afternoon of August 14th and the whole August 15th. For more information MEETINGS

GOOD ATMOSPHERE DURING THE HONEY SHOW IN AZUL

(Espacio Apícola, June 15th 2015) The Honey Show organized by the Azul Beekeepers Center had a positive and encouraging result on mid-june.
The turnout was moderate and concentrated between 10:00 and 18:00 hours on Saturday. But the audience, which was driven by a good harvest in the region, was decidedly to concrete operations at each stands of the companies.
Apicola Danangie company, the current greater company in continuity and efficiency in the provision of hive materials, they sold all the goods they carried even with little public already on Friday. In the evening they had to call the factory to ask for another truck with merchandise for Saturday. The honey sales were absent during the meeting and operations are currently carried out to maintain the structure and await the decision of the buyers or to change towards alternative markets.
All lectures were given by INTA technicians in their PROAPI and Rural Change II programs, many technicians contracted by the State were present. The agronomic engineer Mauricio Rabinovich, currently working in SENASA, was present spreading and encouraging the compliance of the latest regulation 81/15 about monitoring and control of varroa. He invested too much time talking about it in our stand also with the beekeepers who came to get our magazine.

SUCCESSFULLY VARROA CONTROL

(Espacio Apícola, May 13th 2015) More than 100 beekeepers met at the farm of the Queen bees breeder Mr. Ricardo Prieto last Saturday to know the results, obtained by him, in controlling the varroa with cardboard strips soaked with oxalic acid diluted in Glycerine (food grade).
Juan Manuel and his father Ricardo showed how 400 hives remained below 1% of mites; with an average even below 0.5% since June 2014 up to now.
The art of preparing strips based on what was published in Espacio Apicola (the Argentine Beekeepers' Magazine) No 109 and 111 were adjusted.
At the meeting several beekeepers expressed their concern about the problems they've had with synthetic drugs in some ways that appear on the market.
In the closing panel which participated Mr. Marcelo Pita (beekeeper from Santiago del Estero), Juan Manuel and Ricardo Prieto (hosts) and myself, all questions were answered and we suggest to everybody to make their own tests.
We think that making this solution at 55ºC ( 131ºF), as we have published, we are soaking the strips in a product with high levels of Glyceryl mono oxalate. If you could help us making HPLC and/or FTIR to know what kind and proportion of compounds are presents in the final product I will be glad to received your contact.
All documentation on the different treatments against Varroa with oxalic acid and its results, was recorded in Espacio Apícola magazine from No. 101 (May 2012) to No. 111 (January 2015) inclusive.

EPA Okays Oxalic Acid for Varroa Mite Control

(American Bee Journal, March 12th, 2015) Application Methods and Labeling Oxalic acid will be labeled for application by three different methods: By Solution to Package Bees (Oxalic acid in sugar solution is applied as a spray to the package); By Solution to Beehives (Oxalic acid in sugar solution is trickled between frames and other spaces); Vapor Treatment of Beehives (Oxalic acid dihydrate is heated and the vapor sublimates in the hive) Full information: ABJ site Mr Ricardo Prieto, Queen bees breeder since 1976, has developed a profesional method and tool to apply sublimated oxalic acid. See the photo of it in Espacio Apicola magazine No 104

ARGENTINA: MONITORING PLAN AGAINST VARROA SHALL BE CARRIED OUT BY BEEKEEPERS

(Buenos Aires, Official Bulletin, March 12th 2015) Resolution 81-2015 issued by the National Service of Agro-Food Security, senasa, obliges beekeepers to keep track of varroa monitoring in their hives and treatments applied. Beekeepers must keep for two years packaging products applied, reaffirming that can only be used commercial products approved by the agency.

MACIA: ALL READY FOR THE API-EXPO

This weekend, March 20 to 22, Macia city receive us in their local celebration that includes an agricultural, craft and beekeeping exhibition. The festival also features public shows and it is sponsored by the local, provincial and national governments.

INSPECTION OF CHINESE AUTHORITIES TO THE ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING CHAIN OF PRODUCTION

Between March 25th and April 1st is announced the visit of Chinese health inspectors to evaluate the opportunity to open their market to Argentine bee products. We have published in Espacio Apicola 111 the current standard for honey of the PRC, as well as the possible updating of it proposed to the World Trade Organization Take a look here

AMERICAN FOULBROOD IS HITTING NEW ZEALAND

(Northland Age, New Zealand, November 6th 2014) American foulbrood, described by Far North Adult Literacy student Brian Sillick as the Ebola of the bee industry, has not only arrived in the Far North but is running rampant according to FNAL tutor Hine LeLievre.
She and four of her students, who have invested a great deal of time in learning to keep bees, and have gained real expertise in diagnosing infected hives, said earlier this week that no co-ordinated effort was being made to address the problem, and that they feared for the future of the industry.
If the Far North lost its bees, they added, other industries, notably horticulture and pastoral farming, would also be in real trouble.
The students had destroyed seven of their nine hives at Awanui by burning them, and the bees, then burying the remains. Twenty-five hives had also been destroyed at Pukenui, but five abandoned sites were known of in that area. Read more

EFSA: SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS ABOUT AGROCHEMICALS OPEN TO OBSERVERS

(Parma, Italy, September 13th 2014) As part of EFSA’s commitment to openness and transparency, the Authority allows observers to attend some of its plenary meetings. By attending these open plenary meetings interested individuals can observe how risk assessment is conducted by EFSA’s Scientific Committee and its Scientific Panels, and at the same time interact with and put questions to EFSA’s scientific experts. The EFSA Guidelines for Observers apply

DROUGHT FALLS HONEY PRODUCTION IN NICARAGUA

(Managua August 24, 2014, Alma Vidaurre Arias, El Nuevo Diario) "The lack of natural food for bees, by the lack of rain is causing the emigration of hives, a situation that will drop to 30% honey exports for 2014-2015", said the president of the National Commission for Beekeeping of Nicaragua, CNAN, Fabricio Mendoza.

A Copernican Turn:
HONEYBEES COMES FROM ASIA NOT FROM AFRICA, as some studies affirm

(Nature Genetics, August 24th 2014) "A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera" Andreas Wallberg et al. Abstract: The honeybee Apis mellifera has major ecological and economic importance. We analyze patterns of genetic variation at 8.3 million SNPs, identified by sequencing 140 honeybee genomes from a worldwide sample of 14 populations at a combined total depth of 634×. These data provide insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis of local adaptation in this species. We find evidence that population sizes have fluctuated greatly, mirroring historical fluctuations in climate, although contemporary populations have high genetic diversity, indicating the absence of domestication bottlenecks. Levels of genetic variation are strongly shaped by natural selection and are highly correlated with patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation. We identify genomic signatures of local adaptation, which are enriched in genes expressed in workers and in immune system– and sperm motility–related genes that might underlie geographic variation in reproduction, dispersal and disease resistance. This study provides a framework for future investigations into responses to pathogens and climate change in honeybees.

APITERAPHY AND COSMETIC: BEETOX REPLACE THE BOTOX

(EFE, Madrid, August 25, 2014 by antena3.com). Based creams bee venom have become a natural alternative to botox and the most exclusive beauty centers are offering it as treatment with the claim that many celebrities use them to eliminate wrinkles and provide greater sensitivity and smoothness to your skin.
Deborah Mitchell, creator of Heaven brand products, explained that bee venom pushes out wrinkles giving a look and a soft feel and flexibility totally opposed to the appearance of "no expression" and frozen associated with botox, and with its cream, which she calls 'beetox' recovers splendor and appearance of the face that is rejuvenated.

ORGANIC BEEKEEPING ENTERPRISE IS FOR SALE


(Córdoba, August 18th) The company had started 5 or 6 years ago a beekeeping enterprise in order to produce certified organic honey and bottled it to the most demanding markets. Bringas' Family and Monte Native Ltd., project owners, decided to sell 1000 hectares located in Tuclame 20 km from Villa de Soto, Córdoba province, Argentina.
Also the whole project of organic certified honey is for sale, with 600 hives, plant and ratings of the company.


HONEY MARKET IN SPAIN U$S 4,14 PER KILO


(May 19th 2014) According to the monthly newsletter published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Magrama), which collect the numbers of the honey campaign, ended last March 31, with an average price of honeydew in bulk 15.64% higher than the previous season, with 3.77 euros per kilo. The multi-flower honey in bulk, meanwhile, closed at 3.02 euros per kilo, ie, 2.72% more than the previous. More info.

END OF THE BEEKEEPING SEASON IN ARGENTINA

(May 6th 2014) Overall it was a meager harvest, darker honeys in areas where they were traditionally white. The humidity played a major role in many batches appearing what we have called "acquired water", a phenomenon widely discussed in a review published into Espacio Apícola magazine No. 108, "Humidity and Honey".


NEXT MEETINGS ON BEEKEEPING IN ARGENTINA

May 9 to 11th a new Meeting in Maipú - Buenos Aires Province.-
May 16 to 17th traditional meeting in Malabrigo - Santa Fe Province.-
June 6 to 8th Older meeting in Azul - Buenos Aires Province.-
September 19 to 21st traditional meeting in Lavalle - Mendoza Province.


HONEY MARKET IN ARGENTINA

Despite the strong international price of honey, as detailed into Espacio Apicola magazine Nº 108, a lack of liquidity in Argentina is pushing down the price of honey. In many cases the payments are deferred for lack of liquidity, pending devaluation and/or liquidation of exports. The cost of credit in Argentina is very high, exceeding in all cases over a 60% for total interest rate annually.-




ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING SEASON 2013-2014

(December 26th 2013) We present an advance of the beekeeping season in Argentina. Initial difficulties in the north, a great November as we had not for years and many difficulties since December 20 with very high temperatures without cooling overnight, and low humidity. View report in Spanish only MIEL: TEMPORADA APICOLA ARGENTINA


APIMONDIA KIEV 2013

(August 15th 2013) The biggest event of beekeeping history will take place from September 29th to October 4th in Kiev, Ukraine.
Final program in click here
Espacio Apícola will be present in this congress collecting information relevant to Argentine beekeeping. We will establish a meeting point in the exhibition hall to meet with those interested in getting in touch with us and with Argentine Beekeeping.
We thank our suscribers and our sponsors for their support to attend the congress, especially the following companies: Parodi Apicultura, CIPSA Honey, Indumentaria APIDAN (clothing), AMCAR (queen bee breeders), Distribuidora Vairolatti (supplier), Alamgramp srl, Gruas San Blas, Apícola Danangie and Grupo Devoto.
Hope to see you in Kiev from September 29th to October 4th. Lint to an Argentine Beekeeping Catalogue


CANADA:
Spotlight in bee die-off is back on seed treatments

(January 16th, Original Source: OntarioFarmer.com) The focus of ongoing research into what is killing off North American honeybee populations has shifted back to insecticide seed treatments.
A new two-year study by researchers at Purdue University has found high concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides, commonly used as seed treatments in corn and soybean production, in the bodies of bees found dead around their hives. The researchers say in a university press release that those insecticides were present at high concentrations in waste talc that is exhausted from farm machinery during planting.
The insecticides clothianidin and thiamethoxam were also consistently found at low levels in soil - up to two years after treated seed was planted - on nearby dandelion flowers and in corn pollen gathered by the bees, according to the findings published in the journal PLoS One.
Researchers Christian Krupke and Greg Hunt began their study after receiving reports of bee deaths at planting time near agricultural fields in 2010 and 2011. Analyses found that neonicotinoids were present in each sample of affected bees. They suggest that excess talc used in air seeders to keep seed flowing is released during planting and planter maintenance and is then blown into the environment. It showed extremely high levels of the insecticides - up to about 700,000 times the lethal contact dose for a bee.
The researchers also found that corn pollen carried by bees later in the year tested positive for neonicotinoids at levels that are not acutely toxic but enough to kill bees if enough is consumed.
The researchers also say they will continue the study to look at the sublethal effects of neonicotinoids, suggesting that bees that do not die from the insecticide could suffer other effects, such as loss of homing ability or less resistance to disease or mites.


NEONICOTINOIDS INTO NECTAR AND POLLEN OF SQUASH

(Austria, December 13th of 2012, from Harald Singer to Espácio Apícola) Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)
Kimberly A. Stoner (Department of Entomology), Brian D. Eitzer (Department of Analytical Chemistry), The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.
Citation: Stoner KA, Eitzer BD (2012) Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo). PLoS ONE 7(6): e39114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. 0039114
Editor: Subba Reddy Palli, U. Kentucky, United States of America
Funding: This study was supported by a grant from Project Apis m. (URL: www.ProjectApism.org). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


"GENETICS: SCIENTISTS DISCOVER THE HIGH SENSITIVITY OF BEES TO THE ENVIRONMENT"

(BBC, London, December 11th 2012)By Mark Kinver Environment reporter, BBC News.
Researchers say they have unlocked the genetic secrets of honey bees' high sensitivity to environmental change.
Scientists from the UK and Australia think their findings could help show links between nutrition, environment and the insects' development.
It could, they suggest, offer an insight into problems like Colony Collapse Disorder, a mysterious cause of mass bee deaths globally.
The findings appear in Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Extensive histone post-translational modification in honey bees ABSTRACT
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in regulating a variety of cellular processes including the establishment, maintenance and reversal of transcriptional programmes in eukaryotes. However, little is known about such modifications in the economically and ecologically important insect pollinator, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Using mass spectrometry approaches, we show that histone H3.1, H3.3 and H4 of the honey bee are extensively modified by lysine acetylation and lysine methylation. We analysed histones isolated from queen ovaries and 96-h-old larvae, in toto we quantified 23 specific modification states on 23 distinct peptides. In addition, we have identified and characterised patterns of histone PTMs that reside on the same peptide, generating detailed combinatorial information. Overall, we observed similar profiles of histone PTMs in both samples, with combinatorial patterns of lysine methylations on H3K27 and H3K36 more frequently identified in histones extracted from queen ovaries than from larvae. To our knowledge, this comprehensive dataset represents the first identification and quantitation of histone PTMs in this eusocial insect and emerging epigenetic model.


"ROUNDUP: BEES AND HUMAN HEALTH"

(Córdoba, September 20th 2012)ROUNDUP NOT ONLY DESTROY BIODIVERSITY TO BEES, IT IS ALSO CANCEROGENIC.
(Caen, France September 19th 2012) In press: Food and Chemical Toxicology - ELSEVIER
Title: Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize
Gilles-Eric Séralini (a), Emilie Clair (a), Robin Mesnage (a), Steeve Gress (a), Nicolas Defarge (a), Manuela Malatesta (b), Didier Hennequin (c), Joël Spiroux de Vendômois (a)
(a) University of Caen, Institute of Biology, CRIIGEN and Risk Pole, MRSH-CNRS, EA 2608, Esplanade de la Paix, Caen Cedex 14032, France
(b) University of Verona, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Verona 37134, Italy
(c) University of Caen, UR ABTE, EA 4651, Bd Maréchal Juin, Caen Cedex 14032, France

Article history:
Received 11 April 2012
Accepted 2 August 2012
Published online: September 19th 2012

ABSTRACT "The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2–3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5–5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3–2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences." Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691512005637
Check the impact of the article on media linked to food industry:
http://www.foodnavigator.com/Science-Nutrition/Safe-levels-of-Monsanto-fertilizer-and-GM-crop-linked-to-cancer/?utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BDaily&c=N7nhRGfuXxy2z991bwplKxU%2BCsJxk5Cu


"EUROPE AS GMO-FREE REGION"

(Brussels, September 5th 2012) The European Green Party and the European GMO-free Regions Network is meeting with politicians, scientists, EU institutions and businesses in Brussels today to discuss the future of GMO-free food and agriculture in Europe.
Annex Ituzaingó Neighborhood Mothers (Córdoba, Argentina) were invited because they are a symbol of struggle and perseverance who reach a criminal trial that sentenced a farmer and a crop duster aircraft because they sprayed with chemicals banned by law in an area protected by a declaration of a health emergency.
The GMO-free Europe Conference 2012 has been co-organised by the Greens and the GMO-Free Regions Network, and is the first such meeting in two years.
Currently, two GMOs (genetically modified organisms) are approved for cultivation in Europe – Monsanto’s MON810 corn (already banned in several European countries), and BASF’s Amflora potato (they are stoping production in Europe and they are moving to America from January, according The NY Times). Several other GMO crops are not approved for cultivation but can be imported into Europe, and unintentional presence of GMOs is tolerated at a level of up to 0.9% in other crops.
Speaking with FoodNavigator, GMO campaigner for the Greens in the European Parliament Arnaud Apoteker said that GMO legislation in Europe is at a critical stage. Yesterday, key campaign groups met “to strategize and figure out how to go along in our fight to keep a GMO-free Europe,” he said, ahead of today’s more formal meeting.
Questioning authority
“The main political issues are directly related to upcoming issues at the Commission level,” said Apoteker, including other GMO crops pending EU approval, and the issue of whether individual member states should be allowed to impose national bans for individual crop cultivation without invoking action from the World Trade Organization.
“Up to now, if you want to ban the growing of GMOs, it means you question the authority of the EC,” he said. But in his view, there is no need for revision of the current law on national bans.
“Our opinion is that we don’t really need a new text because if we read the original text, depending on how you interpret it, it allows for member state bans….We don’t want to lose something for a dream that may not materialise.”
Also on the conference agenda is the issue of new GMOs being proposed for commercialization and how the risk assessment is performed by EFSA (the European Food Safety Authority).
Voluntary GMO-free labelling
In addition to the legislative issues, the conference organisers are also working on a voluntary label certifying that a product is GMO-free, Apoteker said. Such a designation already exists in Germany, Austria and France, which have programmes to label meat, milk and eggs as GMO-free, considering that animals fed GM crops are not required to be labelled as GM under EU legislation, and the European Union imports about 30m tonnes of GM crops as animal feed each year.
Carrefour’s Engagement Qualité, for example, now has about 300 products labelled GMO-free, and Apoteker claims that many producers of GMO-free products have seen a significant increase in sales since they started labelling.
“The question now is whether we need EU-wide regulation or whether it would be more efficient to push companies to begin to label in a practical but significant way.”
Apoteker said that following the conference, he would like all stakeholders to have a clear picture of future possible outcomes.
“What I would like is that everyone goes back saying ‘how can we work together to make sure that the EU is GMO-free’ – not just my region, my city, or my fridge.”
Source: Conference urges drive toward GMO-free Europe
The European Green Party and the European GMO-free Regions Network is meeting with politicians, scientists, EU institutions and businesses in Brussels today to discuss the future of GMO-free food and agriculture in Europe.
http://www.foodnavigator.com/Legislation/Conference-urges-drive-toward-GMO-free-Europe


CALL: "BEES ARE THE THRESHOLD"

(Cordoba, June 4th 2012) Regarding our proposal to consider the life of bees as a threshold for human health risk, Honeybee larvae will be used to determine the environmental impact of pesticides.
The American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM proposed new standard, ASTM WK36581, Practice for in Vitro Rearing of Honeybee Larvae, is being developed by Subcommittee E47.02 on Terrestrial Assessment and Toxicology, part of ASTM International Committee E47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate.
Among the pesticides are specified insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. The Association invites those interested in this field to attend the International Committee E47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate. For more information go to www.astm.org/JOIN


MACIA
"National Beekeeping Party"

(Macia, Entre Rios, April 1st 2012) This past weekend was held the exhibition of agricultural, livestock and beekeeping in Macia, Entre Rios. The weather was great, very sunny and pleasant. The organization was exceeded once again with a more extended campus, very neat, clean and very comfortable especially for exhibitors enjoyed a parking area more than enough. Another highlight was the wide diffusion that took the "National Beekeeping Party". Presentations of the exhibition were made in many cities in Entre Rios, but also in cities of Santa Fe, Corrientes and Misiones. Finally, the organizers brought in "direct flight" from Brussels to Macia, the President of the Commission for Technology and Quality of Beekeeping Products of Apimondia: Etienne Bruneau to lecture on current market honey. The party also included the visit of the Governor of Entre Rios, the Vice-President of Apimondia and the National Beekeeping Coordinator. The Ministry of Tourism of the Nation hired very expensive art shows, with the presence of "Soledad" (popular singer) among others. Still, the audience was considerably lower than in the previous edition.


HONEY MARKET IN EUROPE

(Macia, April 1st 2012 - Fernando Esteban) Etienne Bruneau spoke with us on Sunday morning in Macia and told us that is not yet resolved the issue of the presence of pollen from transgenic plants into honey (GM pollen). We said him that we are working to adapt to new standards of honey arisen in France, Germany and Europe from the issue of the presence of pollen from genetically modified plants (GM pollen) in honey and he said it was "very risky because we also face analysis and any contamination could interfere and override the job done". He also said that "promoters of all this trouble do not represent anybody, EPBA is a very small organization where beekeepers are neither French nor Spanish, nor Italian, nor the Greeks". Then we asked him what he thought about the French decree signed on January 30 on the labeling of apiculture products "GMO-free within 3km" and that we publish in "Espacio Apicola" No. 100 and he told us "is a voluntary labeling and yet he does not seem right, or good because the risk will remain".A transgenic pollen reaches far France from Spain, he said. Finally we asked whether it will be modified European Standard on honey and he did not know if it was going to change, it is not clear whether to modify or rather to clarify the terms and the concept of pollen in honey as a component and not as "ingredient ". "Everything depends on the agreement reached by DG-AGRI and DG SANCO." If the SANCO requested the rule change for honey ... AGRI want to know what benefit they get in return, and not necessarily SANCO is willing to give. So time passes, the agreement is not reached and the situation remains unresolved.


SAN FRANCISCO API-EXPO 2012

(Córdoba, April 1st 2012) From "Espacio Apicola" still think we need to prepare to meet the requirements of different standards on honey based on the information and documents published in our edition No. 100. Moreover, there were always risks and standards already formally take different tolerances. Because of this, besides lectures on "start beekeeping", "intensive management of beehives" or "bees nutrition", we plan to provide tools to "identify areas of production according to different markets" in the next "XX Fair and Beekeeping Meeting from de Center of the Country", San Francisco Api-Expo 2012, on May Saturday 5th and Sunday 6th in San Francisco, Cordoba, Argentina.-


BERLIN: WORSHOP ABOUT GM POLLEN IN HONEY
(December 18th 2011 - Espacio Apicola) There were two meetings regarding GM pollen in honey last week.
The meeting of the European Comission (EC) in Brussels on Monday 12th and the Workshop organized by the German Ministry of Agriculture in Berlin on Tuesday and Wednesday 13 and 14th.
The EC is upset because Germany react in advance without agreement with the EC. Also they didn't want to attend at Berlin meeting because it is also an iniciative without any consultation. But finally the EC was present in the Woorkshop looking for consensus. All the people in the EC think that the resolution of the Court is a bad interpretation of the Directive on Honey, except German people.
What has happened in Berlin?
The ministry of agriculture of Germany is open to discuss but the preasure of German people against OGM is so high then they are looking for strong arguments to answer with enough force against the "Green" party.
Official technicians from Europe and also Germany has not a protocol to work. It is very difficult to take a representative and homogenic sample. The DIN norm ask 15% of the honey for sampling. This is only possible in shelf sampling not in bulk.
If it is not easy to sampling, the PCR technic to check if there are GM material, and to check if it is an authorized or not event and to thereafter quantify it is even harder. Then nobody from official laboratories and institutions offer a technic solution.
The Argentine presentation lectured by Ms Paula Lanzelotti concluded the meeting saying that pollen is not an ingredient and we need to check it as part of the honey (Like the EC is proposing). Then if labeling threshold is 0,9 % and the total pollen amount in honey is about 0,1 % the GM pollen is very insignificant, it is difficult to check and it will be always bellow the threshold then it is not necesary to discuss about it and the Directive on Honey is clear about it and there are not problem with the Directive on OGM products.
The German beekeeper Walter Haefeker from the EPBA said "you can solve a legal problem but not the absence of GM pollen in honey if you do not take enough measures in origin. Then in Germany our costumers are asking for GM free honeys"
Regarding "meassures from the origin" we also talk about the difficulties on coexistance between GM cultivation and conventional regarding weather conditions, movements of trucks and movement of beekeepers.
Conclusion: The EC is asking to European Countries not to make any action before its resolution but in fact Germany do it.
Members of EC are proposing a change of the Directive of Honey but it will take time.
Surely, Germany will walk alone with own rules.
Before EC decision there are no rules and market is ambiguous.
It depends on commercial agreements between parts. The Court will work with precedent sentence of Bablock case.


THERE WILL BE ENOUGH HONEY FOR EUROPE
(October 7th 2011 - Espacio Apicola) Only two emissaries from the European Union were enough to hold the expectations of a couple of thousands of Argentines, Brazilians, Chileans and Uruguayans in Apimondia claiming the European Union to open its market to honeys with traces of GMO pollen.
During the conference developed in "La Rural" in Buenos Aires, Mr. Walter Haefeker and Mr. Etiénne Bruneau took calmy the mocking lesson from transgenic wonders provided by geneticist Esteban Hopp -INTA-, in turn, they reaffirmed the position of the European Court. Particularly Haefeker reported that who produces honey with GMO must sell outside Europe.
Did not take long the traditional boasts of some people saying "they need our honey." To this, the European Union also responded with a harsh humiliation on September 30th. From November 1st. 2011, the honey from India will be allowed to enter the European Union. With India and China as suppliers, the European honey market seems to solve the main quality problem: price.


ARGENTINE BEEKEEPING IN A HINGE
(September 13th 2011) There are two basic facts that determine the future of the Argentine Beekeeping. One is the resolution of the European Court against the presence of transgenic pollen as ingredient in honey. The other is the announcement of the Agri-Food Strategic Plan, Argentina 2020.
The European Court's ruling is consistent with legislation then, to access the European honey market, we will have to follow all the steps according to the regulations, as described in the editor's words of "Espacio Apicola" magazine No. 98.
The announcement of the Agri-food Strategic Plan (PEA) made by the President of Argentina, based on a technological package of Genetically Modified Organisms, no-till sowing and chemicals, implies a challenge to beekeeping.
On the one hand, the option offered by the National Government is to regard beekeeping as social containment tool (under the umbrella of "Beekeeping for Rural Development"). On the other hand, the needs of commercial beekeepers: the course of action and the options to be discussed by the industry and by beekeepers as explained in the article "Argentine Beekeeping in a hinge".


CHEAP SHOT
(June 14th 2011) Finally, the EU gave the strike announced last February.
As reported in the Uruguayan newspaper "La Republica", the EU took away the status of "natural" to honeys from that country, because they contain GMO pollen.
As with Nitrofurans in 2003, the EU will use this scheme to fall down the honey price. This affects especially to those countries that were in line with European standards of Good Beekeeping Practice and HACCP standards of honey homogenization.
It is worth remembering that at the end of 2010, Great Britain, authorized again the use of nitrofurans in poultry production.
Will the UE punish Bayer and Monsanto to distort life or a few Euros for the "innocent victim beekeeper" will be enough?
On the other hand, what defense we could expect from governments whose economies depend on GMOs?
Source: http://www.larepublica.com.uy/economia/457159-miel-pierde-su-estatus-natural


EUROPEAN HONEY MARKET
(April 29th. 2011) Last February 9th 2011, Europa Press sprayed the news of a case of a german beekeeper who produce honey near fields of Bayern state, where MOM 810 is seed with European Union autorization since 1998 for investigations.
DNA of this GMO corn and modified proteins were detected in pollen collected by beehives around these fields. Traces of MON 810 DNA was detected in some honey samples.
Considering that the presence of GMO corn residues makes his products unaviable to be solt or consumed, the beekeeper started legal actions against Bayern state in German courts.
While several brokers say that it is an internal problem of a German beekeeper against Bayern state, to European buyers it is an excelent "casual" excuse to freeze the market and fall down the honey price at the end of March.
Argentine exporters made bussiness during the first two month of 2011 for about 50% of the whole done during 2010.
After 6 years having detected the problem, when the market just left the "Nitrofurane parody", this case get out of the drawers in a German court to stop the market when the honey price rice over USD 3000 per ton. This stage is quite similar to the same before Slovenian Congress 2003.
The absurdity of the situation and its actors is unsustainable; as well as to those European brokers that are "on vacation". No need to be very suspicious to understand that since 1998 up today, this GMO pollen did several trips around Europe and it could be found where you want to look for, as well as others GMO crops along Europe.
This situation give advantage once more to Argentine exporters who work with USA in front of those that attend the European market. Market that for the odd jobs of some natural alkaloids present in some honeys, is now preparing to manipulate the price with this new excuse.
As in 2003-2005 ALL the honey will be sold, just a matter of seeing who can hold the honey.
During the next days the court must pronounce sentence and a decision is expected to guide the honey market after June.
It is expected that only an inclusion of a warning consumers paragraph on the labels about the possible presence of GMO traces were imposed.
We will be able to attend this topic next May, Saturday 7th, during the Rio Cuarto Api-Expo carried out in the Rio Cuarto Rural Society facilities, Córdoba, Argentina.
Original source: Europa Press


IMPACT OF PELLSTON WORKSHOP IN ARGENTINA
(April 22nd. 2011) Fortyfive specialists from four continents took part in the "Pellston Worksop on Potential Risks of Plant Protection Products to Pollinators" carried out in Pensacola, Florida, USA, last January 16 to 21st 2011.
Meeting addressed key issues on the effect of pesticides on honey bees.
Scientist from institutes of beekeeping, university researchers, directors of state agencies for pesticides regulation and some representative of private companies in order to rich a balanced discussion between the parties.
The argentine resercher Teodoro Stadler, PhD, from the Environmental Toxicology Laboratory (Laboratorio de Toxicología Ambiental, member of the Instituto de Medicina y Biología Experimental de Cuyo - IMBECU - CRICyT - CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina) took part on this workshop.
Stadler will share the results of this workshop and local research findings in a conference in the auditoruim of the "Sociedad Rural de Río Cuarto" (Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina) next Saturday May 7th at 18:00. This conference takes place in the context of the "XIX Fair and Beekeeping Meeting from the Centre of the Country" organized by "Espacio Apicola" magazine with the support of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food of Cordoba province and the endorsement of the "Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto".
Lecture title: "Pellston Workshop Report on Potential Risks of Plant Protection Products to Pollinators (January 2011, Pensacola, Florida, USA) and Local Research Findings"
Further information: info@apicultura.com.ar


Bayer strikes
(Monheim, November 16, 2010) – Bayer CropScience announced today that it has acquired a product for the efficient control of varroa mites (Varroa destructor) from Exosect Ltd., Winchester, United Kingdom. The market launch of this new bee health product in the United States is planned for 2011. First registrations in major European countries are expected from 2012 onwards. The acquisition also enables Bayer CropScience to develop innovative bee health solutions and to commercialize new bee health products worldwide. Financial terms were not disclosed.
The product is based on the innovative Entostat™ technology, a food grade powder refined from a natural wax which is sustainably harvested from a particular species of palm tree, combined with the miticidal active ingredient thymol. After being spread directly onto the top of the frames, bees start to clean the powder out of the hive. It adheres to their bodies via electrostatic attraction. As they move throughout the hive, the powder is distributed to other bees and onto the framework of the hive, including open brood cells.
"Bayer is aware of its responsibility as a producer both of crop protection products and of bee health products", said Dr. Franz-Josef Placke, Head of Development at Bayer CropScience. "Therefore, we are investing in research and development to provide beekeepers with sustainable solutions to improve the health of their bees and beehives."
Press release: Bayer CropScience


FACULTY OF MEDICINE OF NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF CORDOBA CONFRONTS AGROCHEMICALS
(Córdoba, August, 28th 2010) In the assembly hall of Pabellón Argentina and the Faculty of Medicine Secretary of Graduates it was held the "First meeting of physicians from Fumigated Villages", last August Friday 27th and Saturday 28th. Espacio Apícola was present collecting first hand information.
In the centennial National University of Córdoba (UNC), founded by the Jesuits in the XVII Century and worldwide known because of the famous University Reformation ("Reforma Universitaria") of 1918, the most genuine will of scientific honesty wheeled out. After almost a hundred years serving "modernity", several tens of physicians from Fumigated Villages aroused the obsequious university structures to denounce the fast increase in spontanous abortions and congenital malformations caused by the contamination with agrochemicals. The most appointed ones were the Endosulfan and the Glyphosate with their correspondent coadjuvants, due to the fact of being the most studied among more than 100 thousand molecules that form the different "phytosanitary" prodcuts, as merchants of GMO food changes like to call.
PhD Rodolfo Páramo, pediatrician and neotatologist from Malabrigo, located in the northern central part of Santa Fe, described how he realized about the toxicity of agrochemicals when many women had spontanous abortions and/or their children were born with malformations while the grain silos were placed in the downtown. Said situation changed, in part, when they removed the silos from the city. He also explained how he felt betrayed by SENASA when said institution authorized the use of Glyphosate and other acrochemicals labeled as safe, when nowadays it has been proved their hight risk to population in general and for pregnant women in particular.
PhD Raúl Horacio Lucero, Chief of the Molecular Biology Lab from Universidad Nacional del NorEste (UNNE), presented a list of malformations in newly born kids whose mothers were daily exposed, especially during the first weeks of gestation, to the fumigations in the cotton fields of Chaco province.
PhD Gladys Trombotto, genetist of UNC Maternity ward, showed how the cases of congenial malformations increased without any change in the historical risk factors.
In turn, PhD Hugo Gómez Demaio, Chief of the pediatrics service of Posadas Hospital in Misiones, apart from showing the statistics and notorious congenial malformation cases in children of peasants from the region, he also highlighted that the interference of agrochemicals as endocrine disruptors cause from effeminacy to the complete inability to engender males due to the lack of testosterone during the first stage in the neural crest formation, before the fifth week of gestation.
The meeting, that included during the opening ceremony the presence of PhD Gustavo Irico, Dean of Faculty of Medicine UNC, was good for the information exchange and to joing profesionals from different provinces.
Among the presentations, Dr. Andrés Carrasco's was highlighted. The director of UBA Molecular Embriology Lab and CONICET researcher refered to his work "Glyphosate-Based Herbicides produce Teratogenic Effects on Vertebrates by Impairing Retinoic Acid Signaling". Said work, that was ignored and even vilified by the National Minister of Science and Technique, Lino Barañao, was published in the magazine Chemical Research in Toxicoly, last July.
Closing the event, chiefs of different chairs of UNC Faculty of Medicine concluded that there was enough evidence to demand immediate protective measures.


BEGINNING OF THE SEASON IN ARGENTINA
(Córdoba, August 25th 2010) There is a great movement of beehives in areas of blueberries, citrus, almond, fuit trees and Native Forest.
After a long time of bitter cold, Argentine beekeepers are hopeful and looking for new horizons. The risk of late frosts is high.
The next season is the central topic of the edition 93 of our magazine "Espacio Apicola".
Information generated by the Argentine Beekeeping site.


QUEEN BEE COMPETITION
(La Paz, Mza, August 25th 2010) Mendoza beekeepers convened the fourth edition of the competition in "La Paz" county. There will be the selection of queen bees and award next December 4 and 5th. You are welcome to meet and share ! More http://centroapicolalujandecuyo.blogspot.com


LAVALLE API EXPO
(Lavalle, Mza, August 25th 2010) With high profile of the Queen Bees Breeders Association of Mendoza, LAVALLE city calls for an Api Expo next September 10 to 12th. A meeting where beekeepers teach beekeepers and a commercial hall joins Argentine companies with Argentine and Chilean beekeepers.


HONEY PRICE TO ARGENTINE PRODUCERS
(Buenos Aires, August 25th 2010) 1 USD = 3,94 ARS
1 Honey Kg = 9,25 ARS = 2,34 USD
1 pound = 1,06 USD aprox.


ARGENTINE MEETINGS
(August 18th 2010) The National Honey Show of Azul (Buenos Aires province), carried out in June was a success in relation to poor beekeeping season. Organizers declined the invitation only to Saturday with a good criterion. It was the best show of the year.
This weekend 20, 21 and 22 August the appointment is in Rosario under Sonia Torre & Associates organization.


MEXICO: Small hive beetle
(Zacatecas, June 1st 2010) The "Small hive beetle" (Aethina tumida), native of South Africa, was detected in the United States in May 1998 and the State of Coahila, Mexico, in 2008. Recently it has been reported in the State of Zacatecas showing his steady progress in the Northern country.
In addition to the prophylactic measures recommended for beehives treatment, is to highlight the suggestion of removing the soil surrounding the colonies to cut the reproductive cycle of the beetle.
Full text on El Sol de Zacatecas


AZUL HONEY PARTY - JUNE 2010
(Buenos Aires, Argentina - May 23rd, 2010) It is available now the list of conferences to be expound during the next "Fiesta Nacional de la Miel" in Azul (Buenos Aires province) from JUNE 26th to 27th. You can access it via the link on this page.


ARGENTINE BEEKEEPERS
(Córdoba, Argentina - May 4th 2010) Beekeeper René Monteverdi and his brothers Raúl and Daniel from Balnearia, Córdoba, Argentina will share their updating experience next Saturday during the San Francisco api-expo. They started beekeeping activity 20 years ago in a cattle rissing area and now they have all their beehives on pallets to move along the country.
The Api Expo starts next May 7th at 16:00 with a lecture in charge of Cordovan University proffesors and finishes on Sunday 9th after several beekeepers' proposals about beehive nutrition.
The program has been updated today. Check it in www.apicultura.com.ar


HONEY MOISTURE
Argentina (March 5th 2010) - Some colleagues from "Pampa úmeda" region told us that they harvested honeys with a little more moisture than the normal this season. Due to a lot of rainfall during the crop season.
It is advisable to control that moisture and to sell this honeys above the normal values as soon as possible.


BEEHIVES SHORTAGE
USA (March 5th 2010) - In spite of predictions it was noticed beehives shortage for almond pollination in California, once more. Beekeepers have been received offers of U$s 200 per beehives (in fact nuclei) "with two frames of bees and above". American beekeepers, affected by CCD, would appeal to Aussies bees packages.


MACIA PARTY
(March 5th 2010) - Maciá city party includes a beekeeping show, it will be visited by the president of Apimondia, Gilles Rattia, this year. Among the invited artists it will be singing "Peteco Carabajal" and "Chaqueño Palavecino" two of the most important Argentine folklore singers. The appointment is in Maciá, Entre Ríos, next March 26th to 28th.


CHIVILCOY API-EXPO
(March 5th 2010) - The Rural Society of Chivilcoy summons to the new edition of its beekeeping exhibition next April 17th and 18th.


EXPO-APICOLA SAN FRANCISCO 201
The "18th Fair and Beekeeping Meeting from the Center of the Country" will be carried out in San Francisco (Córdoba, Argentina), "apex of Argentine Beekeeping towards the North of the Country", on May 7th to 9th. Further informationwww.apicultura.com.ar


ARGENTINA: END OF SEASON
(Córdoba, February 13th 2010) It has Already arrived to all our subscribers the 90th edition of "Espacio Apícola" beekeeping magazine. Soon it will be available a synthesis in this site. You can read in advance the editor words and index clicking here.
The honey crop has been good in many regions of Buenos Aires province and there have been honey again, after four years, in La Pampa province.
Santa Fe, Córdoba and Mendoza suffered the effects of a lingering drought followed by virulent storms and heavy rains. Flowers washed by the rain and few sunny days in the necessary moment made the honey crops to fail in many regions of these provinces.
The rainfall forecast for the next two weeks in the Mesopotamia, added to the soil moisture saturation and the overflowing of many rivers, condition the honey crop in Entre Ríos and the south of Corrientes province.
Even when we have the capacity to control part of the natural forces and also mitigate their negative effects, the bad agricultural practices increase the destructive effect of these forces out of their own limits. Massive deforestation, clearfield and no-till sowing (siembra directa), as if it was the only agricultural technology, have eliminated the natural barriers of contention of winds and rainfalls.
Rainwater runs on compacted fields for "no till sowing" looking for the sea. The use of the "chisel" (tool of spikes to break the compacted fields and to facilitate water absorption) is not either enough, or comparable to the penetration that roots of native forests offer.
Groundwater doesn't recover their storing level and the disappearance of forests moved away the rainfalls of the natural watershed of the mountain ranges. Desertification affects not only much of Argentine Beekeeping, but also the same landowners that paradoxically will be subsidized by the disasters that in many cases have caused themselves. For our habitual subscribers, it is the chronicle of an announced catastrophe.
How does the Argentine Beekeeping advance and how are it and its relation with the world modified?
Follow this Espacio Apícola closely. Remember to update your subscription for 2010.
In Argentina $ 60 (five editions, shipping included)
Rest of the world U$S 40 (five editions, shipping included)


BEES FREE OF AFRICANIZATION
(Cordoba, December 13th 2009) Digital photos and computers optimize the techniques to determine bee races.
The use of digital photos and image vectorizing softwares have allowed traditional morphometrical taxonomy identify africanized bees just with a picture of the right forewing of bees.
A photographic image is transformed into vectors able to be related to one another and analyzed in logical form by a statistical softwares in a few minutes. Tiago Francoy, from USP (Brazil), applied this technique to determine africanized bees and he achieved an effectiveness of more than 99%. He made the comparative works using the Rutner collection as reference and samples from the whole Brazil. Detailed description of the technique, results and the charts that identify the main commercial bees races were published in Espacio Apicola edition No. 89. The main queenbees breeders from Argentina are considering it and its success can be significant for the international bees market. More information inform@apicultura.com.ar


HARVEST EXPECTATION IS GETTING BETTER
(December 13th, 2009) Despite the delay, rains are arriving in the central region of Argentina. At the end of November Mr. Enrique Vairolatti, from San Francisco (northeast of Cordoba province) a region with a high concentration of beehives, told us that bees had already taken two small suppers. The area surrounding Rio Cuarto city, south of Cordoba and San Luis provinces, began to receive good rainfalls at the beginning of December. At the same time, Mr. Mario Iaconis from National Radio of Bahia Blanca city announced significant rainfalls in the Southwest of Buenos Aires province. The hydric balance is good in the whole coastal region (coast of Parana river, Center and East of Buenos Aires province and the whole Mesopotamia).


COMMERCIAL UPGRADE
We have upgraded the information of honey and beewax exporter, suppliers of materials, machineries and inputs companies that also support this information and training Space at the service of the Argentine Beekeeping. Check the new telephone guide and E-mails in "Argentine Beekeeping Exporters and Suppliers"


CCD: BEES INTOXICATION
(November 24th 2009) The National Union of Beekeeping of France (UNAF) ratified in Apimondia its accusation against the Imidacloprid, the Fipronil and neonicotinoids as well as the Thiametoxan but UNAF went farther and demonstrated that the Ministry of Agriculture of France hides the technical reports to the control agency of the European Union.
The president of the European Professional Beekeepers Association (EPBA), Walter Haefeker, affirmed in Montpellier that the German government, compensated beekeepers whose beehives were damaged by Bayer Crop Science products but, the German government demanded beekeepers to throw away pollen frames polluted with pesticides to eliminate any evidence of the chronic intoxication that beehives exposed to pesticides suffer. That intoxication is produced by airborne dust during coated corn seeding, by remains of coated seeds in field, by puddles polluted with pesticides and by drops of gutation of plants born from coated seeds with systemic pesticides, recently demonstrated and published in the USA.
Before the latest call to decide the approval of pesticides in the United Kingdom next January 2010, David Ramsden (Member of the Beekeepers Association of Twickenham, London) exhorted all British Beekeepers to let their delegates know what they think before voting in BBKA meetings. "As you may know, the British Beekeepers Association endorses some pesticides, and in return receives income from the manufacturers -said David- For me, it is a simple question of ethics. Not a scientific or technical one, as there is insufficient evidence to come to any absolute conclusion regarding the danger of the various products to bees. The question I beg is the ethical proposition “should the BBKA endorse these products for money?” My answer is no." affirm David in a message spread by Phil Chandler last Friday November 20. This problem is discussed in detail in "Espacio Apícola" n. 89.


ALARMING TOXICITY OF GLYPHOSATE
(Página 12 Newspaper - Argentina - April 13th 2009) A laboratory scientific investigation confirms glyphosate is highly toxic and it causes devastating effects in embryos. Glyphosate is the Roundup® active ingredient, a total herbicide what is based the soya been production and the main source of clearfield idea, registered by Monsanto Corp. Thus, it was determined by the Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, CONICET-UBA (Faculty of Medicine) that, with dilutions dose up to 1500 less than those used in the fumigations of soya fields, it was proved intestinal and heart dysfunctions, malformations and neuronal deteriorations. The study, carried out in embryos, is the first one in its type and it refutes the supposed harmlessness of the herbicide.
The Laboratory of Molecular Embryology is twenty years working in academic investigations. It is placed in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and linked to the National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigations (CONICET). It is the most important reference on the matter in Argentina, conformed by graduates in biochemistry, genetics and biology. During the last fifteen months they studied the effect of the glyphosate in amphibious embryos, from the fecundation until the organism acquires the morphological characteristics of the species.
Next to the glyphosate they are also studing their helpings as POEA that, when working as a detergent, it is an animal fat derivated that has high toxicity and residual power.
Source and full text: http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-123111-2009-04-13.html


THE DROUGHT WORSENS THE HONEY CROP
(Newscast of Rural Channel - Thursday 29/01/09 15:15 GMT) Images from the National Meteorological Service show the deficit of water in the soil of the central region and the Argentinean Northeast. From yellow to red it is shown that the situation is serious and extreme respectively. Only in green areas it is acceptable the water retained level of the soil. The factors that worsen the drought are several and firstly the anthropic changes play an important role. In this situation the bee hardly survives, it does not turn out.
Check the image from Google
Source: National Meteorological service


ARGENTINEAN MIRACLE
(Newscast of Rural Channel - Thursday 29/01/09 15:15 GMT) It is known that Argentina imports pollen and royal jelly. Only honey is exported and some wax; occasionally and in insignificant quantities, queen bees and propolis are also exported.
In the edition number 43 of the magazine "Alimentos Argentinos" by SAGPyA (National Secretary of Cattle Raising, Agriculture and Food) (December of 2008) it was published what is called "Numbers of beekeeping chain", where it is said that Argentina exports 93% of the honey that turns out, for more than U$S 150 million.
According to the published data, those U$S 150 million annually is enough to amortize 3,39 million beehives, the honey extraction rooms, the operative expenses of the annual calendar and to keep 100.000 jobs!.
It seems that living in Argentina is so cheap! that as the incomes (according to this data) for each job is about U$S 1500 a year, the Argentinean State maintains an export tax for honey of 10% and it would not be necessary to do away with the right customs that Argentinean honey pays to enter in Europe, about 17%... It seems this does not affect the competitiveness of Argentina in the "generous" honey market.
We beg our readers not to believe in these numbers published by SAGPyA. Because of this kind of articles, not as irresponsible as this particular one, the Argentinean beekeepers had to stand the anti-dumping sanctions that the US Department of Commerce (DOC) imposed some years ago. In Argentina U$S 1500 annually is hardly enough to pay the social insurance and the contribution for the job of a rural worker without any qualifications.
Abrir imagen guardada en Google
Source: Alimentos Argentinos nº 43 - December of 2008 - SAGPYA Argentina. Fuente: Revista Alimentos Argentinos nº 43 - Diciembre de 2008 - SAGPYA Argentina


BRITAIN'S BIGGEST FARMER BANS NEONICOTINOIDS
(January 29th, 2009) The Co-op, which owns 25,000 hectares of farm land in Britain - banned the use of neonicotinoid pesticides on all its farms to protect honeybees.
Simon Press, senior technical manager at the Co-op group said: "We believe that the recent losses in bee populations need definitive action, and as a result are temporarily prohibiting the eight neonicotinoid pesticides until we have evidence that refutes their involvement in the decline." Paul Monaghan, the Co-op's head of social goals accused the UK government of failing to recognise that "pesticides could be a contributing factor" in the breakdown of nature's number one pollinating machine.
Full story http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jan/28/bees-coop-pesticide
BBC Interviewhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/listen_again/default.stm
Source: BeeAlert


ESPACIO APICOLA No. 85
(January 27th, 2009) It has already been distributed the edition No. 85 of our Argentine Beekeepers' Magazine "Espacio Apícola" completing the five editions of 2008. Remember to renew your subscription (Spanish only, for foreing countries U$S 40 per year.- Five editions shipping and handling included). For further information inform@apicultura.com.ar


SITUATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE BEEKEEPING SEASON IN THE PAMPAS - ARGENTINA
(Newscast of Rural Channel - Thursday 11/12/08 15:15 GMT). The annual comparison of Green Index (Chlorophyl activity) published by the National Meteorological Service shows the repercussion of the drought in the Pampas and the central area of the Country. This deficit, marked by the yellow and brown areas (check image), shows the difficulty to build up of the colonies during the months previous to the nectar flow.
The next image (2) compares the Standard Rainfall Index, in the same period from 2007 and 2008, also published by the National Meteorological Service. It can be observed that at the beggining of the 2008 season the general conditions are better than last year's in almost the whole region, except from those that remain in yellow or brown color.
The area sowed with sunflower can be considered as a parameter to project the honey production in Argentina. The following graph (3), taken from the work published in Espacio Apícola # 84 by Ofelia Naab and Angélica Tamame, shows the evolution of sunflower areas between 1992 and 2005. In 1999 Argentina had a record honey crop. Nowadays the estimation of sunflower sowed areas is about 2,2 million Hectares (5,4 million Acres).


ESPACIO APICOLA 84th EDITION
(November 10th 2008) Editorial words and abstracts of the main titles of Espacio Apícola magazine # 84 are available in this page.


CCD: ITALY BANS PESTICIDES
(September 17th 2008) The Italian government banned the use of several neonicotinoid pesticides that are blamed for the deaths of millions of honeybees. The Ministero del Lavoro della Salute e delle Politiche Sociali issued an immediate suspension of the seed treatment products clothianidin, imidacloprid, fipronil and thiamethoxam used in rapeseed oil, sunflowers and sweetcorn. The Italian government will start a monitoring program to further investigate the reasons of recent bee deaths.
full Italian text
Italy followed Germany and Slovenia which banned sales of clothianidin and imidacloprid in May. In France imidacloprid has been banned on sunflowers already since 1999. In 2003 the substance was also banned as a sweetcorn treatment. Bayer´s application for clothianidin was rejected by French authorities.


WARNING: ENVIROMENTAL CONTAMINATION CAUSES BEE LOSSES
(September 13th 2008) 400 beehives died and other 200 were affected in hardly one weekend in Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe, Argentina.
Bee illnesses were not detected. Neither there were fumigations in the area.
The main suspicions are the emanations of two local industries dispersed by the wind.
The involved industries would produce high dioxine levels, a substance generated mainly by plastic incineration.
A similar phenomenon was reported 10 years ago near Laguna Paiva, also in Santa Fe province where there was a pathogenic residues oven.
Source: Beekeepers Association of Venado Tuerto.

CAUTION IN CORDOBA:
"Clavel del Aire" Tillandsia spp.
ANOTHER ENVIRONMENTAL EVIDENCE

María Luisa Pignata PhD verified high levels of environmental contamination studying Nickel and Zinc concentrations in "Clavel del Aire" (Tillandsia spp.) around Río Tercero city, Córdoba province. "Clavel del Aire" are those small plants that we usually see in the electricity or telephone cables or sticked in tree branches. These vegetables feed on nutrients that are spread in the air and their study is used to verify the environmental contamination. The ovens where this contamination would come also emanate dioxines, that beside these heavy metals in high concentrations are also highly toxic.
Source: María Luisa Pignata PhD, FCEFyN-UNC

RISK FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTIONS
In areas of Córdoba province where it is practiced the pigeon hunt, 1000 annual lead tones are spread as ammunitions of shotguns, a true lead mine. As metal, lead is not necessarily toxic but, in contact with other substances in the field, it is oxidized and it becomes soluble transformed in a highly toxic substance. The small size of ammo makes them easier oxidable. This allows the absorption of heavy metals by plants and they put in risk several agricultural productions, mainly those that look for an organic certification.
Source: María Luisa Pignata PhD, FCEFyN-UNC

CALENDAR
II Organic Beekeeping National Meeting
Organized by Letis CORP.
Place: Rural society of Santa Fe, Argentina
Date: September 26th
Further information click here


Symposium of Queen Bees Breeders and Instrumental Insemination
Place: Puerto Vallarta, Mexico
Date: October 15-19th 2008
Further information: beekeeping.com


Apimondia Congress

Place: Montpellier, France
Date: September 15-20th 2009
Further information apimondia2009


Contact us:
inform@apicultura.com.ar
To spread a piece of news join:
Espacio Apícola

CRISIS IN ARGENTINA
(Conjucture analysis in PDF file- June 2008)

QUALITY CONTROL OF POLLEN AND ROYAL JELLY COURSE
The Beekeeping Investigation Center (CEDIA) of the National University of Santiago del Estero (Argentina) invites professionals, technicians and interested people to receive this training next July 28th to 30th 2008.
Directed by José Francisco Maidana PhD, in Spanish.
At the end of the course participants will have achieved:
• The necessary training to determinate the quality of pollen and Royal jelly samples, as norms settled by the C.A.A. (Argentinean Alimentary Code).
• The specific ability appling techniques to detect possible adulterations of pollen and Royal jelly. • A positive attitude to divulge the specific properties that determine the nutritious and therapeutic value of pollen and Royal jelly.
Contact: cedia@unse.edu.ar


PROPOLIS AND THE C.A.A.
(Buenos Aires, May 14th 2008) the Combined Resolutions 94/2008 and 357/2008 of the Secretary of Political, Regulation and Sanitary Relationships, and of the Secretary of Agriculture, Cattle raising, Fishes and Foods, respectively, incorporate to the Argentinean Alimentary Code (C.A.A.) the Articles 1308 bis and 1384, and they substitute the Article 1339.
The norm was published on May 14th 2008 in the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Republic, and it establishes a term of sixty (60) days so that the holders of certificates of products that contain propolis begin the procedure of registration of this products, according to the specifications of the present Resolution.

PRESENT & FUTURE
(Córdoba - January 10th 2008) After two years of having consolidated the normative about honey export and production in Argentina, it is necessary a reconversion of the Argentine Beekeeping Sector. The fiscal bureaucratic labyrinth and the lack of agricultural planning are reducing profit and productivity of the beekeeping companies dedicated only to honey production and commercialization in Argentina. This was the topic tackled by Fernando Esteban, in the today beekeeping column in Rural Channel's news. (Rural channel - satellite - every Thursday from 13:15 to 13:30 Argentina or 15:15 to 15:30 GMT)

DISCUSSION
(July 2nd, 2007) The beehive-loose rising in the latest winter in northern hemisphere, called CCD by Americans, and the probably looses in this Argentine winter are breaking news on beekeeping television and radio programmes.
The reason of these looses are not determinated yet. People discuss the following factors: Parasites and honeybee diseases, over use of pesticides, possible GMO implication and the weather change.
Several acts asking founds for more than 100 millon dollars to researches, are in the Senate of USA. Argentine beekeepers claim a diversity agricultural activities. The request was done in the latest Api-expo of Rio Cuarto (Cordoba - Argentina) and gived formally to President Kirchner with an "Open Letter" last June.


COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER
(USA - April 25, 2007) Scientists Identify Pathogens That May Be Causing Global Honey-Bee Deaths. This CCD affect European and American beekeepers mainly. New was broken by an Army laboratory who works on chemical and biological technologies. There would have many academic, government and commercial teams working on this way. Will be this the cause or just a mask of agrichemicals and GMO?. Enter your name and password to read the full article in English

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER (CCD)
(March 9th) This winter the bee looses would be around 40 to 70% in 24 of the 50 states of USA. In a message to the Bee-L Peter Borst talking about the experience of Mr. Lance Sundberg said "Some beekeepers have lost more than 80 percent of their colonies already this year" last March 3rd.
Almond pollination contracts rise up to U$S 140 per colony.
BBC Cience taking note of the "Colony Collapse Disorder" published the following article ¿Y DONDE ESTAN LAS ABEJAS" (click to check it in Spanish), the Argentine News Agency, TELAM, rewrited it under the title "Gran desconcierto en Estados Unidos ante la desaparición masiva de abejas" (click to check it in Spanish)